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❶There are several solutions to this question. It teaches its followers that nothing is to be believed until it has been proved to be true through experiment.

1. What are science and religion, and how do they interrelate?

2. Science and religion in Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism


On the other hand, religion takes for granted the reality. The path of religion is metaphysical. Indeed, the rationalists of religion pursuing the path of metaphysics postulate the concept of God: And this faith enables the religious man to attribute a design or meaning to the reality. Thus, science is analytical in approach whereas religion is synthetically. Religion is subjective, as religious enlightenment has to be felt by one's own experience.

Unless and until religious experience is felt by an individual himself, he cannot reap any pleasure out of it. The moral and religious rules are allied and have to be followed by individuals in appropriate ethical situations. Science, on the other hand, deals with the objective side of life. Scientific discoveries are common property. They are experience felt by all and sundry. They are open to common men and not shrouded in mystery or haziness.

They are truths, universally true and subject to scientific calculations. A systematic scholarship and concentration is needed to get at scientific truths which are subsequently tested and approved by hypotheses and experiment. But so long as scientific knowledge is imperfect, the place of religion and god will continue to be highly relevant.

So long as scientific theories do not reach perfection, humans have to fall back upon their own reasoning and secondary powers of their own soul and spirit. In this sense, science and religion actually converge. Both scientists and saints have to undertake solitary travels into the regions unknown and to depend on themselves only and nobody else.

But once a line is drawn between them, their ways bifurcate and take separate routes. Religious truths remain essentiality the property of the individuals who experience and realise them through their own inward soul and mind and not through the external manifestation of things which have a physical behaviour.

Scientific truths, on the other hand, become the property of the whole world and go to inflate the store-house of human knowledge. Religion is perhaps as old as mankind. Even in the earliest times man had some idea of the higher power, a superior unknowable force pervading and controlling the universe.

The earliest form of man's worship of serpents, science and statues is clear proof of his belief in an All-powerful Creator. Science is of more recent growth.

The earliest phases of science may not be more than four or five thousand years old, while modern science began only in the 15th century. But Religion is very much older and before science made its appearance the former was the chief force guiding and governing human thoughts and conduct. The supremacy of religion, however, gave rise to many evils. Religion encouraged superstition and other evil practices. The heads of various religions assumed almost the powers of a dictator over their followers.

The true spirit of religion was ignored on account of these developments. But with the beginning of science, many of these evil growths were badly shaken. The conflict between science and religion was for some time very bitter. The conflict between science and religion shows how truth has to suffer in order to establish its claims. Pioneers of science had to face numerous difficulties.

Galileo, for instance, was thrown into prison for his new theories about heavenly bodies. No better was the fate of Copernicus who pointed out that it is the earth which moves round the sun. In the 19th century also Darwin's Theory of Evolution gave rise to angry opposition from the Christian Church, since his theory cut across the Biblical version of the creation of mankind from Adam and Eve. The Churchmen raised the cry "Religion in Danger" and pressed for the persecution of such scientist.

In recent times, the German scientist Robert Mayor was shut up in a lunatic asylum for discovering his theory of the Conservation of Energy. Thus all those who departed from the accepted Biblical theories about God, and universe were regarded as the enemies of mankind and religion. Numerous attempts were made to suppress the voice of reason and truth.

But Truth eventually prevailed and science held its ground. Many who had come forward to laugh at science became its champions and followers. Before the 19th century had run its course, the triumph of science was complete. The rapid progress of science changed the face of the world beyond recognition. It conferred unheard of comforts and conveniences on mankind. The wonders of science bewildered man and he began to enjoy numerous blessings in life Time and distance, disease and pain were rapidly conquered and man seemed to be the master of his surroundings.

These developments gave rise in some circles to the belief that man is all-powerful and God a superiors being, people lost faith in Heaven or Hell, God or the Supreme Power. Religion seemed to be unnecessary and the Church began to lose the respect and power it had once enjoyed Religion seemed to be dethroned from the hearts of man and science reigned in its place.

A growing number of well-known figures deny any logical conflict between science and religion. For example, Langdon Gilkey says the following: It is not to say that this theory is essentially atheistic or represents atheism.

It is because science is limited to a certain level of explanation that scientific and religious theories can exist side by side without excluding one another, that one person can hold both to the scientific accounts of origins and to a religious account, to the creation of all things by God [. Ian Barbour believes that science and religion are "complementary languages," complementary ways of analyzing…… [Read More].

Science Two Spires One Cathedral. Otherwise, one field risks becoming subordinate to the other; although it's likely that Coyne's theology is extraordinarily sophisticated, the brief excerpt of it that Bill Maher uses leads the viewer to suspect that if these precepts are followed to their logical conclusion, religion will always give way to science as John Paul II gave way to the certainty that organisms evolve over time. If so, then efforts to restore faith to a more equal footing are naturally vulnerable to claims that they are reactionary attempts to usurp science's rightful and supreme interpretative role in modern life.

It is easy to understand Richard Dawkins' profound revulsion over what he sees as resurgent religiosities surrounding Islamic fundamentalism on the one hand and Christian fundamentalisms on the other: These faith-oriented responses to world events pose an implicit challenge to his own conviction that all aspects of experience are the product of physical entities…… [Read More].

Religion Has Been on the. Glynn concludes that fundamentalists exist not only in the Creationism Camp, but in the Evolutionism camp as well, regretting the unfortunate irony that Evolutionism Fundamentalists are attempting to suffocate constructive dialogue in much the same way Catholic Priests did in the past.

Demere and Walsh state that for something to be considered Science, it must depend on rational evidence and observation of natural events. Demere and Walsh conclude that the theory of Creationism does not meet this standard because it is supported only by religious texts and cannot be disproved on its own terms. There are exceptions, where legal ramifications are employed and individuals are held to account for their inaction.

For most people, including myself the idea that faith is the only solution to medical concerns, and especially emergent ones is unfathomable. Medical care is congruent with faith, as even for the most ardent believer in God if God had not meant for children to be cured of preventable a treatable disease he would not have developed treatments to do so. For the broader population this is a reasonable tenet and most people report taking themselves and their children to a doctor or hospital when they feel it is necessary.

It is also clear that modern people are even more involved in their own wellness and may even be able to treat some injuries and illnesses at home, without medical intervention. Furthermore most know when they need to seek care for themselves and…… [Read More]. Science and Christianity Introduction Common. This occurred in BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old.

Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U. Religion features prominently as a theme in literature. In fact, some of the earliest works of literature are rooted in their religious and cultural traditions, including the ancient literatures of the Middle East and Mesopotamia.

As the role of religion in society changed, so too did the role of religion in literature. Modern literature, including work by Nathaniel Hawthorne, often offers scathing critiques of religion, whereas postmodern literature allows religion to play a more complex role in shaping individual identity.

Nathaniel Hawthorne's he Scarlett Letter heavily criticizes the role of religion in a patriarchal society, whereas Yann Martel's Life of Pi presents religion more as a subjective phenomenon, revealing an important cultural shift from religion to spirituality. In Nathaniel Hawthorne's he Scarlett Letter, the author shows how religion becomes a tool of social oppression and political control. Hawthorne shows that religious authorities are hypocritical, and especially fundamentalists, as the…… [Read More].

Religion Anselm Aquinas and Hume. Thus, Sam argues that although the world often seems unjust and is filled with innumerable instances of evil , yet P.

However, Gretchen counters by asking whether those who behave in an evil way are ever punished for their transgressions, and whether there is any motivation for people to not simply act in their own best interests, whether or not this involves behaving in an immoral manner. Sam's rejoinder appeals to the afterlife as the site in which the importance of morality becomes manifest: However, Sam disregards the fact that God is purported to pardon many sinners, which would ostensibly mean that he regularly pardons instances of injustice.

The dialogue between Sam…… [Read More]. Religion and Science Are Often. The question should also be specific enough that there would not be a large number of sub-questions that would have to be answered first or that might alter the value of the central question. At the same time, if the question were too narrow, then the researcher might find that it ruled out other possibilities that might emerge.

The question also must generate data that tests the hypothesis, and a simple yes or no answer would be too simple for a good research question. The question cannot be such that it raises a question that cannot be quantified, for then the data would not lead to a useful answer or one that would be testable by others.

The question must also be formulated so that it is clear to other researchers who may want to test the hypothesis as well or replicate the original research, and the question must be…… [Read More]. Religion Should Be Eliminated From. Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it.

In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable.

Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence. Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.

Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…… [Read More]. Science and Religion in the 17th Century. Some people may see the industrial and the technological revolutions of the past two centuries as central pillars that have helped humanity not only survive, but also advance greatly.

Others may see political revolutions as central to our society's progress, be they wars for independence in the colonies of the 20th century, or be they the mother of drastic political change, the French Revolution.

Others yet may believe that cultural revolutions, such as the Enlightenment of the 18th century, a phenomenon that spurred great change and bore great thinkers, truly altered society. However, above all, one must note that without the interaction between science and religion and the issues this brought to light in the 16th and 17th…… [Read More].

Science and Religion the Debate. By coming into contact with nature cultures such as the Native American tribes, religions in the Western world were no longer the same. This was the basis for later violence against all who did not agree with the religious norm, for example in events such as the Salem Witch Trials.

Today, this same fundamentalism insists that every word in the Bible or other religious documents should be taken literally. According to this view, the story of creation simply could not agree with Darwinism. The long American history of using religion as a basis for many actions, both good an bad, plays an important role in this.

However, it is also true that there is an increasing trend within Christianity to return to the earlier point-of-view, accepting both Darwinism and…… [Read More]. Science and Religious Beliefs of. Another Victorian poet, Gerard Manley Hopkins, was more forthright in his beliefs. Biblical typology was a signature to his poetry, and his poems often included biblical phrasings and in the case of "The Barnfloor and Winepress," even a passage from a scripture as an epigraph.

Hopkins addresses the sinning Christians and even unbelievers, and reveals to them the various gifts that Christ has rewarded them with, as a result of the ultimate sacrifice. He offers hope through belief, and cites historical examples in his writings reminding the reader that God is their only hope in adversity giving the example of the people of Samaria who were besieged by the Syrians.

In his poems, he also opines that God must bruise and test the human being, in order to create good, as he deals with this issue in "The loss…… [Read More]. Religions and Development it Is Popularly Believed. Religions and Development It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration.

This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim. The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life.

Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity.

Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this.

Race factored in creates a shift in the view which can be correctly applied to that which affects voting and as well globalization has created its' own impact on voting choices made by the American individual. Churches and Political Engagement. Political ehavior, 26 2 , And Clark, John a. The Impact of Race, Gender, and Religion.

Political Research Quarterly, 56 2 , And Kelly, Jana Morgan. Religion and Latino Partisanship in the United States. Political Research Quarterly, 58 1 , The Electoral Relevance of Political Talk: Religion as a Positive Force. While art is certainly a part of culture, other cultural gifts to history mark religion as a positive force.

Without the music, ceremony, poetry, and holy books of Muslim, Hindu, and Christian texts, the world would be without significant Beauty. In their own ways, each of these traditions shaped the cultures that would come after them in significant theological, intellectual, and cultural ways.

Burhan writes that Islamic influence in the world has included charity, justice, and unity. Wade writes that even as Christianity is often vilified as a blight to mankind, it made great contributions to science, freedom, ethics and morality, medicine, etc. In conclusion, the ancient history of Eurasia would not have been the same without religion. While religious wars are certainly an important part of history, religion's contributions in the areas of art and culture suggest the positive role religion played in the shaping of contemporary society.

The religious experience according to Rosenstock-Huessey and the Medicine Rite Religion has always been the binding force that enabled humanity to create meaning in their lives and maintain unity among them. As a way of expressing spiritual reality, religion is instrumental in providing humanity a way of converting into concrete form i.

Perhaps one of the most important functions that religion has for humanity is that it is able to depict humanity as the most important creature that the Supreme Being or God had created in the universe. That in our attempt to give meaning and purpose in life, we humans subsist to religion in order to validate that we, indeed, matter the most to God above anything else.

This spiritual reality, despite its selfish nature,…… [Read More]. Religion Israel L Jones Role of. However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher currently approximately , Palestinian Christians live in the U. Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities.

In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences Halter, In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. Science in Spite of Its. Geneticists have been trying to unearth so-called founder mutations: Unlike many other mutations, founder mutations can be traced to one original ancestor.

The discovery and study of founder mutations allows anthropologists to research the general patterns of human migration, providing a more complete understanding of history. Religion views genetic mutations in a different light.

Many fundamentalist Christians, for example, might propose that disease is God-given. Yet if Mary Schweizer, an Evangelical Christian scientist, can unite religion with science then anyone can. Her devotion to fundamental Christian thought is not at odds with her scientific endeavors, according to Yeoman. In fact, Schweizer views science as a spiritual endeavor, as a means to discover the meaning of life, death, and seeming anomalies. Religion and science share common goals and objectives…… [Read More].

Nash's opportunity to develop a passionate and well-developed argument answering yes: However, Nash does not rest on the reader's understanding or experience of faith to make his case. The author takes a different approach, using logic and reason to explain that at least to a believer in Christ, there can be no other paradigm other than Christian absolutism. According to Nash, pluralism by its very definition violates the tenets inherent in the New Testament.

It is therefore impossible for a theologian, especially a Christian one, to be a pluralist. Nash's scapegoat, for better or worse, is John Hick. Hick is a theologian who has succumbed to the temptation of thinking pluralistically and who attempts to show that Jesus is in fact not the only savior.

Nash picks apart Hick's argument by revealing the logical fallacies…… [Read More]. Religion Augustine Divine Grace and. In Chapter 5, the great churchman informs us that Water is in fact an apt designation for the Divinity, better than any of the other elements.

Water possess the unique properties of being more moveable than earth though less movable than air while at the same time being essential to the creation and sustaining of life, as in the way water must be added to the soil in order for plants to grow. This signification of matter first conveys its end, that is, that for the sake of which it was made; secondly, its formlessness; thirdly, its service and subjection to the Maker. Therefore, it is first called heaven and earth; for its sake matter was made.

Secondly, the earth invisible and without form and darkness over the abyss, that is, the formlessness itself without the light, as a result of which the earth is said to be invisible. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all monotheistic religions: God demands an exclusive relationship with His followers and an acknowledgement of His unique power. All major monotheistic faiths have a concept of the 'end of days' or final judgment Deism God as the divine watchmaker.

God sent into motion the universe with His power but we are now able to use our own reason to govern our lives. Enlightened reason and science is the best way to understand the future. Naturalism The natural world is the source of meaning. Ethics can be found 'in nature. Nihilism Life has no inherent meaning. There is no system of morality inherent to the human condition beyond that which we construct.

We are adrift and not heading to a purposeful future. Religion the New Human Potential. In fact the aims of theosophy when it was founded was to "form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, or color," and also "to promote the study of Aryan and other Eastern literature, religions, and sciences," and also "to investigate the hidden mysteries of nature.

New Human Potential Movement members have written books but none have penned a book that is recognized as a sacred text or as a key piece of religious dogma. As an eclectic faith, the New Human Potential Movement has a less rigid code of ethics than most other religions do. Like ceremonial magickal traditions, moral relativism and ambiguity is tolerated. However, there are a few beliefs that are cohesive enough for scholars to define the New Human Potential Movement as a religion rather than as a cult or a simple offshoot of New Ageism.

One of…… [Read More]. Science and Religion One of. This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example.

So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.

For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path…… [Read More]. Religion Theology Reaching Out to Communities.

On this page references that describe the people and history of the country of Tunisian -- with its Arab community described and evaluated in terms of political and cultural history -- will be presented as a preface to a plan on page 2. Scripture calls for all Christian believers to "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation" Mark Electronic Journal of Social Sciences.

Recent Changes in the Arab orld in Historical Context. Religion and Education Religious Development in Children. However, religious development did not receive a great deal of consideration during the early phases of growth in the psychology or the schools of human behavior and development.

Even though the work of Sigmund Freud has been extremely influential in education and psychoanalysis, there are many other eminent psychologists who have made greater strides for humankind by trying to understand the planning and teaching aspects of religious education.

This paper, therefore, aims to discuss three such prominent individuals: Ironically, behaviorism and psychoanalysis entail some aspects of atheistic presuppositions and therefore create many psychologists who are leaning more towards…… [Read More]. Although rather dated, much of the material and imagery used in the show is very good even by today's standards.

The show ran from to , seven seasons in total. The show was a brilliant piece of art both in terms of the subject matter they covered as well as the manner in which it was presented in terms of color, presentation, concepts and ideas. The show is rated a very high 8.

This brief report shall cover some aspects of the show, what made the show so good and the adeptness in which they blended the script, the imagery and the characters into a cohesive storyline. Confucianism the Major Religion of Japan? Religion is a cultural phenomenon and institution that involves specific behaviors and practices. Religion has been present for a great deal of human history.

Religion is concerned with beliefs. Belief is a powerful tool in a person's life. People live their lives in conjunction with and in support of their beliefs. There are ways to interpret and pinpoint the ways in which religion and beliefs manifest in a culture.

This paper will contemplate Japan and religion. The paper will consider what religions are present in Japanese history. With specific focus on Confucianism, the paper will ask if Confucianism is the major religion of Japan; whether it is or not, the paper will render an understanding as to why. Confucius, an important figure in Chinese history, created Confucianism. Confucius was a political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru school of Chinese thought Stanford: Science Has Played on Religion.

Einstein was a convinced scientists, but this did not prevent him from acknowledging situations when religion had assisted the world of science and from realizing that religion was in many cases responsible for influencing people to come up with logical explanations to particular events.

This book presents a typical account concerning the relationship between science and religion. The fact that it uses thirty scholarly essays with the purpose to document the history of the topic while also introducing strong opinions supporting each of the two sides shows that the debate is still alive and that it is very difficult…… [Read More]. An introduction by Alister E. Specifically it will discuss Newton's case of scientific discovery and the rise of Deism.

Newton's case of geometry and physics illustrates the non-confrontational model of science and religion, and in fact, that model has its roots in the Deism that Newton's work helped create. Deism believes that God did create the world, but that he is no longer in control of it, and it rose out of Newton's discoveries of gravity and other scientific methods that indicated the world was interconnected and dependent on details to continue to function.

This relates to the non-confrontational model of science and religion, which believes that the two sides of the argument do not have to argue with one another, they can peacefully coexist, because all work, even the work of scientists who might not believe in religion, is God's work, and he oversees all,…… [Read More]. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey through the current stresses of the world and the ways that religion helps us deal with that stress.

God gives creatures true causal powers, thus making creation more excellent than if they lacked such powers, and random occurrences are also secondary causes; chance is a form of divine creativity that creates novelty, variety, and freedom. One implication of this view is that God may be a risk taker—although, if God has a providential plan for possible outcomes, there is unpredictability but not risk. Johnson uses metaphors of risk taking that, on the whole, leave the creator in a position of control creation, then, is like jazz improvisation , but it is, to her, a risk nonetheless.

Why would God take risks? There are several solutions to this question. The free will theodicy says that a creation that exhibits stochasticity can be truly free and autonomous:. Authentic love requires freedom, not manipulation. Such freedom is best supplied by the open contingency of evolution, and not by strings of divine direction attached to every living creature.

Christianity, Islam, and Judaism have similar creation stories, which ultimately go back to the first book of the Hebrew Bible Genesis. According to Genesis, humans are the result of a special act of creation. Genesis 1 offers an account of the creation of the world in six days, with the creation of human beings on the sixth day.

Islam has a creation narrative similar to Genesis 2, with Adam being fashioned out of clay. These handcrafted humans are regarded as the ancestors of all living humans today. Humans occupy a privileged position in these creation accounts. In Christianity, Judaism, and some strands of Islam, humans are created in the image of God imago Dei. There are at least three different ways in which image-bearing is understood Cortez According to the functionalist account, humans are in the image of God by virtue of things they do, such as having dominion over nature.

The structuralist account emphasizes characteristics that humans uniquely possess, such as reason. The relational interpretation sees the image as a special relationship between God and humanity.

Humans also occupy a special place in creation as a result of the fall. By eating from the forbidden fruit of the Tree of Good and Evil they fell from this state, and death, manual labor, as well as pain in childbirth were introduced.

The Augustinian interpretation of original sin also emphasizes the distorting effects of sin on our reasoning capacities the so-called noetic effects of sin. As a result of sin, our original perceptual and reasoning capacities have been marred.

Whereas Augustine believed that the prelapsarian state was one of perfection, Irenaeus second century saw Adam and Eve prior to the fall as innocent, like children still in development.

Scientific findings and theories relevant to human origins come from a range of disciplines, in particular geology, paleoanthropology the study of ancestral hominins, using fossils and other evidence , archaeology, and evolutionary biology.

These findings challenge traditional religious accounts of humanity, including the special creation of humanity, the imago Dei , the historical Adam and Eve, and original sin. In natural philosophy, the dethroning of humanity from its position as a specially created species predates Darwin and can already be found in early transmutationist publications. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed chimpanzees as the ancestors to humans in his Philosophie Zoologique He proposed that the first organisms arose through spontaneous generation, and that all subsequent organisms evolved from them.

He argued that humans have a single evolutionary origin: Darwin was initially reluctant to publish on human origins. In the twentieth century, paleoanthropologists debated whether humans separated from the other great apes at the time wrongly classified into the paraphyletic group Pongidae long ago, about 15 million years ago, or relatively recently, about 5 million years ago.

Molecular clocks—first immune responses e. The discovery of many hominin fossils, including Ardipithecus ramidus 4. These finds are now also supplemented by detailed analysis of ancient DNA extracted from fossil remains, bringing to light a previously unknown species of hominin the Denisovans who lived in Siberia up to about 40, years ago.

Taken together, this evidence indicates that humans did not evolve in a simple linear fashion, but that human evolution resembles an intricate branching tree with many dead ends, in line with the evolution of other species.

In the light of these scientific findings, contemporary science and religion authors have reconsidered the questions of human uniqueness and imago Dei , the Incarnation, and the historicity of original sin. Some authors have attempted to reinterpret human uniqueness as a number of species-specific cognitive and behavioral adaptations. For example, van Huyssteen considers the ability of humans to engage in cultural and symbolic behavior, which became prevalent in the Upper Paleolithic, as a key feature of uniquely human behavior.

Other theologians have opted to broaden the notion of imago Dei. Given what we know about the capacities for morality and reason in non-human animals, Celia Deane-Drummond and Oliver Putz reject an ontological distinction between humans and non-human animals, and argue for a reconceptualization of the imago Dei to include at least some nonhuman animals. Joshua Moritz raises the question of whether extinct hominin species, such as Homo neanderthalensis and Homo floresiensis , which co-existed with Homo sapiens for some part of prehistory, partook in the divine image.

There is also discussion of how we can understand the Incarnation the belief that Jesus, the second person of the Trinity, became incarnate with the evidence we have of human evolution. For instance, Peacocke regarded Jesus as the point where humanity is perfect for the first time. Teilhard de Chardin had a teleological, progressivist interpretation of evolution, according to which Christ is the progression and culmination of what evolution has been working toward even though the historical Jesus lived years ago.

According to Teilhard, evil is still horrible but no longer incomprehensible; it becomes a natural feature of creation—since God chose evolution as his mode of creation, evil arises as an inevitable byproduct.

Deane-Drummond , however, points out that this interpretation is problematic: Teilhard worked within a Spencerian progressivist model of evolution, and he was anthropocentric, seeing humanity as the culmination of evolution. Current evolutionary theory has repudiated the Spencerian progressivist view, and adheres to a stricter Darwinian model. Deane-Drummond, who regards human morality as lying on a continuum with the social behavior of other animals, conceptualizes the fall as a mythical, rather than a historical event.

She regards Christ as incarnate wisdom, situated in a theodrama that plays against the backdrop of an evolving creation. As a human being, Christ is connected to the rest of creation, as we all are, through common descent. By saving us, he saves the whole of creation. Debates on the fall and the historical Adam have centered on how these narratives can be understood in the light of contemporary science.

On the face of it, limitations of our cognitive capacities can be naturalistically explained as a result of biological constraints, so there seems little explanatory gain to appeal to the narrative of the fall. Some have attempted to interpret the concepts of sin and fall in ways that are compatible with paleoanthropology.

Peter van Inwagen , for example, holds that God could have providentially guided hominin evolution until there was a tightly-knit community of primates, endowed with reason, language, and free will, and this community was in close union with God. At some point in history, these hominins somehow abused their free will to distance themselves from God.

For van Inwagen, the fall was a fall from perfection, following the Augustinian tradition. John Schneider , on the other hand, argues that there is no genetic or paleoanthropological evidence for such a community of superhuman beings. Helen De Cruz and Johan De Smedt favor an Irenaean, rather than an Augustinian interpretation of the fall narrative, which does not involve a historical Adam, and emphasizes original innocence as the state that humans had prior to sinning. This final section will look at two examples of work in science and religion that have received attention in the recent literature, and that probably will be important in the coming years: Other areas of increasing interest include the theistic multiverse, consciousness, artificial intelligence, and transhumanism.

Even before Darwin formulated his theory of natural selection, Victorian authors fretted over the implications of evolutionary theory for morality and religion. Evolutionary theorists from Darwin onward argued that human morality is continuous with social behaviors in nonhuman animals, and that we can explain moral sentiments as the result of natural selection. This capacity has evolutionary precursors in the ability of nonhuman animals to empathize, cooperate, reconcile, and engage in fair play e.

Since we can explain ethical beliefs and behaviors as a result of their long-term fitness consequences, we do not need to invoke ethical realism as an explanation. Some ask whether evolutionary challenges to moral beliefs apply in an analogous way to religious beliefs see Bergmann and Kain , especially part III.

Others have examined whether evolutionary ethics makes appeals to God in ethical matters redundant. John Hare , for example, has argued that this is not the case, because evolutionary ethics can only explain why we do things that ultimately benefit us, even if indirectly e. According to Hare , evolutionary ethics does not explain our sense of moral obligation that goes beyond biological self-interest, as evolutionary theory predicts that we would always rank biological self-interest over moral obligations.

Therefore, theism provides a more coherent explanation of why we feel we have to follow up on moral obligations. Intriguingly, theologians and scientists have begun to collaborate in the field of evolutionary ethics. For example, the theologian Sarah Coakley has cooperated with the mathematician and biologist Martin Nowak to understand altruism and game theory in a broader theological and scientific context Nowak and Coakley The cognitive science of religion examines the cognitive basis of religious beliefs.

Recent work in the field of science and religion has examined the implications of this research for the justification of religious beliefs. De Cruz and De Smedt propose that arguments in natural theology are also influenced by evolved cognitive dispositions. For example, the design argument may derive its intuitive appeal from an evolved, early-developed propensity in humans to ascribe purpose and design to objects in their environment. This complicates natural theological projects, which rely on a distinction between the origins of a religious belief and their justification through reasoned argument.

Kelly Clark and Justin L. Barrett argue that the cognitive science of religion offers the prospect of an empirically-informed Reidian defense of religious belief. Thomas Reid proposed that we are justified in holding beliefs that arise from cognitive faculties universally present in humans which give rise to spontaneous, non-inferential beliefs. If cognitive scientists are right in proposing that belief in God arises naturally from the workings of our minds, we are prima facie justified in believing in God Clark and Barrett John Wilkins and Paul Griffiths argue that the evolved origins of religious beliefs can figure in an evolutionary debunking argument against religious belief, which they formulate along the lines of Guy Kahane The evolutionary process X does not track the truth of propositions like p.

Wilkins and Griffiths hold that the epistemic premise can sometimes be resisted: However, they hold that this move does not work for religious and moral beliefs, because such beliefs are assumed not to be the result of truth-tracking cognitive processes.

Comte, Auguste cosmological argument Hume, David: This research was supported by a small book and research grant of the Special Divine Action Project, specialdivineaction. Religion and Science First published Tue Jan 17, What are science and religion, and how do they interrelate? Science and religion in Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism 2. Contemporary connections between science and religion 3. Future directions in science and religion 4.

Science and religion in Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism As noted, most studies on the relationship between science and religion have focused on science and Christianity, with only a small number of publications devoted to other religious traditions e.

As Robert Hooke wrote in the introduction to his Micrographia: For example, Clark writes, Exclude God from the definition of science and, in one fell definitional swoop, you exclude the greatest natural philosophers of the so-called scientific revolution—Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo, Boyle, and Newton to name just a few.

Contemporary connections between science and religion Current work in the field of science and religion encompasses a wealth of topics, including free will, ethics, human nature, and consciousness.

In this way, God could guide the course of evolutionary history by causing the right mutations to arise at the right time and preserving the forms of life that lead to the results he intends. The free will theodicy says that a creation that exhibits stochasticity can be truly free and autonomous: Future directions in science and religion This final section will look at two examples of work in science and religion that have received attention in the recent literature, and that probably will be important in the coming years: The evolutionary process X does not track the truth of propositions like p Conclusion: Pakistan Philosophical Congress, New York City Press, pp.

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Journal of Religion and Science , Darwin, Dharma, and Design , London: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives , New York: Collins, Francis, , The Language of God: Comte, Auguste, , Cours de Philosophie Positive: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe , Cambridge: University Press of America.

Cortez, Marc, , Theological Anthropology: A Guide for the Perplexed , London: Deane-Drummond, Celia, , Christ and Evolution: Wonder and Wisdom , Minneapolis: Eliminating Chance through Small Probabilities , Cambridge: A Historical Introduction , Gary B.

Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. Oxford University Press, pp. A Study in Religious Sociology translated by J. What Scientists Really Think , Oxford: Edis, Taner, , An Illusion of Harmony: Forrest, Barbara and Paul R. Gross, , Creationism's Trojan Horse: The Wedge of Intelligent Design , Oxford: Garwood, Christine, , Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea , London: Harris, Mark, , The Nature of Creation. Examining the Bible and Science , Durham: Pasquini, Suzanne Duke, Jessica J.

From Conflict to Conversation , New York: Islam, China and the West second edition , Cambridge: The Natural History of Religion. A Critical Edition , T. Non-European Roots of Mathematics 2nd edition , Princeton: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle Jardin des Plantes.

A Christian Approach to Evolution , Cambridge: Margaret Evans, Karl S. Rosengren, and Paul L. Masci, David and Gregory A. Mernissi, Fatima, , Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World trans. Russell, Nancey Murphy, and Arthur Peacocke eds. Norenzayan, Ara, , Big Gods: The Principle of Cooperation , Cambridge, Ma: Critical Realism in Science and Religion , Greencastle: Philipse, Herman, , God in the Age of Science?

A Critique of Religious Reason , Oxford: Science, Religion, and Naturalism , New York: Polkinghorne, John, , Science and Theology: An Introduction , Minneapolis: Rios, Kimberly, Zhen H. Totton, and Azim F. Ruse, Michael and E. Volume 1 , Berkeley, CA: Volume 2 , Berkeley, CA: Volume 3 , Berkeley, CA: Volume 4 , Berkeley, CA: Volume 5 , Berkeley, CA: Cambridge University Press, pp.

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Religion has been guiding the society for thousands of years. Science taught human-beings to examine things scientifically. Science influenced people’s minds and ideas to a great extent. There is close relationship between science and religion.

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Sample essay on the relation between Science and Religion Introduction: Science and religion are commonly perceived to be mutually exclusive contradictions in terms, as it were. Both the method and.

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Free science vs. religion papers, essays, and research papers. Free Essay: Religion vs. Science The human mind is easily convinced on what the eyes tell the mind. If you see something in front of yourself, you might have.

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Science and religion are two different aspects of life. Both have their own importance and value. History tells us that the two have always been in conflict in the beginning; religion was all important and reigned supreme in every spare of life. But gradually its place was taken by science. Jun 30,  · EVER since science began drifting away from religion, centuries ago, each has dreamed of subsuming the other. Scientists, in their boldest moments, speak of explaining away all the mysteries by.