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Freewill and Determinism

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❶Environmental determinism was revived in the late-twentieth century as neo-environmental determinism.

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Determinism
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geographical determinism

Having been rewarded for following rules in the past the individual does so in the future. There is no moral evaluation or even mental calculation involved. All behavior is under stimulus control. The other main supporters of determinism are those who adopt a biological perspective. However for them it is internal, not external, forces that are the determining factor.

According to sociobiology evolution governs the behavior of a species and genetic inheritance that of each individual within it. For example Bowlby states a child has an innate i. Personality traits like extraversion or neuroticism, and the behavior associated with them, are triggered by neurological and hormonal processes within the body. There is no need for the concept of an autonomous human being.

Ultimately this view sees us as no more than biological machines and even consciousness itself is interpreted as a level of arousal in the nervous system. However, a problem with determinism is that it is inconsistent with society's ideas of responsibility and self control that form the basis of our moral and legal obligations. One of the main assumptions of the humanistic approach is that humans have free will; not all behavior is determined.

Personal agency is the humanistic term for the exercise of free will. Personal agency refers to the choices we make in life, the paths we go down and their consequences. For humanistic psychologists such as Maslow and Rogers freedom is not only possible but also necessary if we are to become fully functional human beings. Both see self-actualisation as a unique human need and form of motivation setting us apart from all other species.

There is thus a line to be drawn between the natural and the social sciences. To take a simple example, when two chemicals react there is no sense in imagining that they could behave in any other way than the way they do. However when two people come together they could agree, fall out, come to a compromise, start a fight and so on. The permutations are endless and in order to understand their behavior we would need to understand what each party to the relationship chooses to do.

Cognitive psychologists are also inclined to attribute importance to free will, and adopt a soft determinism view. However whereas humanists are especially interested in our choice of ends how each of us sees the road to self actualization cognitive psychologists are more inclined to focus on the choice of means.

In other words for them it is the rational processing of information which goes into the making of a decision which is their main interest. Conscious reflection on our own behavior is seen as the best way of achieving goals and learning from mistakes. Mental illnesses appear to undermine the concept of freewill.

For example, individuals with OCD lose control of their thoughts and actions and people with depression lose control over their emotions. However there is also an intermediate position that goes back to the psychoanalytic psychology of Sigmund Freud. At first sight Freud seems to be a supporter of determinism in that he argued that our actions and our thoughts are controlled by the unconscious. However the very goal of therapy was to help the patient overcome that force.

Indeed without the belief that people can change therapy itself makes no sense. This insight has been taken up by several neo-Freudians. One of the most influential has been Erich Fromm As a result we give up our freedom and allow our lives to be governed by circumstance, other people, political ideology or irrational feelings.

However determinism is not inevitable and in the very choice we all have to do good or evil Fromm sees the essence of human freedom. Psychologists who take the free will view suggest that determinism removes freedom and dignity, and devalues human behavior. By creating general laws of behavior, deterministic psychology underestimates the uniqueness of human beings and their freedom to choose their own destiny.

What is an example sentence for the word Determination? Here is my sentence. The determination of that boy was useless. Of course, I'm just guessing. What are examples of human environmental interaction in Argentina? Some examples are slash and burn which happens a lot in argentina by cutting down trees and burnig it. Example of environmental geography? An example could be global warming because humans are doingsomething to the earth.

There is a relationship and interactionbetween human and the environment. Environmental geographers deal with issues such as: Can the environment cope with population growth? What will be the extent and impact of global warming? To what extent should we protect tropical forests? What causes famine and why do people die from it?

What are the advantages and disadvantage to damming a river in acertain area? What are some examples of an environmental pollutant? There are countless environmental pollutants. The primary cause ofall air pollution in the world is a result of car exhaust. What is an example of determination?

An example of determination is hiking on Mount Everest on a snowytrail. Determination is having a firm purpose irrespective of thechallenges and obstacles one faces. Is Eye color is determined by environmental factors? List three examples of an environmental pollutant?

Carbon monoxide is an air pollutant. Lead can pollute bothwater and soil and enters water primarily through plumbing systems. Organic pollutants include the herbicides and insecticides whichare used in farming or gardening. What is the definition of environmental determinism? What are examples of social and environmental problems?

If applied to individuals: Give examples of some of the environmental factors affecting health? Environmental factor or ecological factor or ecofactor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.

What are the example of determinism? Well for a start define determinism Every action has a cause, a part of the causal chain so you have no choices, no free will. Every action is caused by something. You are not held responsible for any of your actions For example: You are brought uo in an abusive household and so you will go on to abuse your own family. You will not be held morally responsible for your actions because that is how you were raised, you did not choose to be that way. Those who believe on free will will argue that the person had e choice to be abusive to their own family, they could have chosen to seek help and deal with the problem but they chose not to, Another idea is that of genetics, Say alchoholism runs in the family, it is in your DNA you cannot be held responsbile for beong an alchoholic because it is a genetic predisoition.

I hope this made sense!! If it doesnt then i will fail my philosophy exam! Environmental resistance will determine how many humans the Earth can support?

Environmental resistance refers to the amount of resistance apopulation is given in it's expansion. As the human populationgrows and requires more natural resources environmental resistancewill increase.

Give you 3 examples of environmental geography? What are the advantages and disadvantage to damming a river in a certain area?

What are the examples of noun determiners? Noun determiners can be articles , adjectives , adverbs , nouns , and pronouns. An adjective describes or qualifies a noun a big dog,a small dog ; adjectives are used before the noun or after the verb This is an easy subject. There are hundredsof adjectives, some samples are: An adverb, which is used to modify verbs, also modifyadjectives, which is additional information about a noun; forexample a very happy birthday, his frequently long speeches, asimply delicious dish, etc.

The modifying pronouns are: How could a researcher determine if alcoholism is genetically determined or environmentally determined? Compare the addiction rates of people in the same environemt, e. How do you analyze environmental determinism and possibilitism? Let's start with Euclidean geometry as a major influence for environmental determinism.

From an airplane, one looks down on geometric farms and cityscapes and suburban environments the world over now, wherever man dwells. I have read that Euclid's "Elements" is the second bestselling book in history, behind the Bible. I do not mean to assume here that Euclid is the only environmental determinant, as surely he did not comprehend sea travel and trigonometric navigation, nor the travels of the Hawaiians and other Polynesians; however, his straight lines, roots, proportions, study of angles and triangles and other geometric figures, as well as his logical method of proof which is deterministic in and of itself, even in the case of reductio ad absurdum proofs, demonstrates a ubiquity that presaged him perhaps but which followed upon his collecting geometric work into a standard academic course of study, of which the rudiments are today taught in grammar school still.

On the other hand, we might take for "possibilitism" the irrational, erroneous, haphazard, random, best-suited, niche-style d designs of people who are subject to rationalizing and delusion, and here I include schizophrenics and their like, of which I am one, so that I speak from experience. For example, I might wish for lunch and kill a bird on a deserted island instead of letting that bird mate and populate, which would be more rational were I to know all the information in the situation perhaps, but my survivalist ego tells me I am more important than the holistic pattern of life in its entirety, and my senses take in only slivers of the entire electromagnetic spectrum over relatively short distances, so I am forced to rationalize my behaviors constantly and delude myself into thinking that what is best for me is best, period.

That is the limited view of "possibilitism", of course. A more holistic view would consider the planet as a whole and what is sustainable and best in terms of biodiversity in terms of providing the best chances of survival for the greatest number of species, as seems to be Nature's goal, as I attempt to subjectively judge her.

Therefore, let us start again, this time with a more universal view: How much of this is neutrons is currently unanswered but only hydrogen in its natural state is free of neutrons, and since there is a lot of hydrogen plasma and gas in stars, let's guesstimate a lowball figure and say that neutrons make up the rest of the periodic table of element's atomic nuclei with protons, add in electrons, grant photons a large share and say that all other particles account for the rest of "matter.

And it provides a place for spirit to abide let's also suppose, with the majority opinion of humanity. From this new viewpoint, we can see that property rights are a good thing, desirable, and logical. However, animals and vegetables and minerals, etc. Were we to assign properly to each species of animate and inanimate matter its destiny of change and involvement with other matter somehow with property rights along the "lifepath" or term the said entity was extant, we might approach something "fair.

But the universe apparently cannot coexist with the total memory of itself simultaneously, so my wish is apparently wishful thinking, and that is why I am not God, "apparently. But energy, of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, IS what we use for memory's conveyance, and so we may safely assume that energy is not only conducive to memory, and contains it via patterning and signal-structures, but energy may have boundless intelligence.

We do not know where Human Mind comes from, and it is only our egos that tell us that humans invented Mind, rather than the Universe inventing Universal Mind first. Or at least niches of it? I have experienced conversing mentally with the sun and having it burn my toe through my shoe and the next day Florida, the "toe" of the US, was in flames.

You may call that coincidence, but I was of the mind of a boddhisattva at the time, or buddha-consciousness, and felt very much connected to the entire planet. It is a FACT that I told my daughter to be cautious of a great quake "that would move New Zealand 6 feet north" and that is exactly what happened with the great tsunami off Cambodia that killed , people.

I am not lying. I am not delusiional. I am not on drugs. She will swear to the truth of that warning, and that I told her to stay out of New Zealand's geothermal pools for exactly that reason.

Such "possibilitists" are possible within "Possibilitism", which is a word and philosophy I thought I had invented. Well, I listen to a lot of late night radio, with a worldwide audience, and may have picked up the word on coasttocoastam.

Or my mind may have braodcast it; it's possible. Or the net collected it from my email. The point is, super-consciousness is desirable if we are going to save the planet and coexist with aliens from other worlds, who might get here fastest by imagining their flights instead of physically travelling, since the speed of thought may be faster than lightspeed squared.

I am referring to tachyons. I have a theory I have called "Neutral Operations" for some time now, though other mathematics uses that term for other theory. Within Neutral Operations, I hold two or more values constant, and alter the operators.

Just so, let us apply it to Einstein: If yu google "How are neutrons created? They are talking about pair-production of new particles and hadronization. Well, Neutral Operations applies. It shall also be environmental determinism in Minkowski spacetime. You can reach me at bozito sbcglobal. What are some environmental examples of different pyramids?

If the priests found a pyramid shaped hill or mountain, that's where they would put the tomb, or build the pyramid. What is an example of environmental adaptation? PlantAdaptations Plants have adaptations to help them survive live and grow indifferent areas. Adaptations are special features that allow aplant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat. Theseadaptations might make it very difficult for the plant to survivein a different place.

This explains why certain plants are found inone area, but not in another. For example, you wouldn't see acactus living in the Arctic. Nor would you see lots of really talltrees living in grasslands. Click on the different biomes or areas below to learn about themand some of the adaptations plants have to live there: Three examples of an environmental pollutant? Airborne pollutants include particulates, SO2, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and dioxide, hydrocarbons and other "smog-forming" components.

Land pollutants include heavy metals, organic waste and spills, and solid waste landfills, etc. Water-borne pollutants include acid rain and acid runoff, heavy metals, biohazards, phosphates and nitrates, suspended solids, organic spills, and byproducts of manufacturing. Other pollutants include electromagnetic pollution the magnetic fields around high voltage power lines , radiation, light pollution, and noise pollution.

The poor generally bear the brunt of pollution, since the rich tend to have enough money to move away from it. It only tends to become an issue when the pollution becomes so pervasive that the rich cannot buy their way out of it e. California smog, which covers Beverley Hills and the slums alike.

Father of school of environmental determinism? Which of the following is an example of how American environmental policy is contradictory? An example of how American environmental policy is contradictory is that the national forests are supposed to be managed for sustainable yield and multiple use, but lumbering was emphasized over other land uses for decades.

This is contradictory because lumbering cannot easily co-exist with many of the other activities, like hiking, hunting, and camping. The other answers are examples of how legislation worked to protect the environment. What are some examples of and opinions regarding negative influences and outcomes that environmental groups have on or have had on political issues and US government policy?

This question is asking for opinions on a controversial subject. Please give your opinion at the bottom of others before you. Opinions may vary significantly on this subject, please be respectful of those who express opinions that are different than yours. The environmental movement has had positive impacts on the U. Government policy over the years. The creation of the National Forest Service is one great example.

The overall increase in the acres of forest is because of this policy. Over the past several years though, some demands have become extreme and some policies are centered around feeling good about some issues rather then doing good. Some examples include the new policies of fire fighting and controlling forest debris before fires start.

After twenty years of poor policy we now see worse forest fires and more destruction. This despite an in crease in overall acres of forest in North America. The preserving of forests was a great idea. The creation of pristine forests though is less workable.

Pristine forest preservation will preserve forests for future generations to not be able to see either, as people are not allowed in. Drilling in deep waters is what brought this question up. Allowing drilling on land in Alaska, Colorado and Wyoming would have prevented the mess a mile under the sea. I would contend that we would not have to be at war anywhere in the middle east if we allowed drilling here.

With more oil in the Green Valley reserve then the middle east, it would simply not be a needed place to go. The reason drilling is denied is due to environmental groups blocking this drilling.

The idea of keeping drilling out of site is foolishness. To compensate the oil companies, it appears that our Government allowed self regulation in exchange for the tougher drilling locations. Wind and solar are two other great examples. Neither can produce enough power to be truly workable.

Neither actually produces enough power to ever build a copy of themselves! In order to keep these PAC's happy though billions are spent each year supporting these horrible wastes of power. Rather then allowing the population to know how little energy comes from these systems, the policy is to state power output in maximum values that are not realistically obtainable. This is not to say that Environmental groups do not do a great deal of good. Like anything though, too much power is not good.

Some of our policies need more balance to be workable. About the only negative effect is that the positions have to be dumbed down so much that TV anchor men think they understand what's going on.

Their mis-interpretations are poorly understood by listeners, who then band together to "do the right thing". As a consequence, we have people fighting to avoid using heavy Alberta oil because it's "bad" and opting for much more environmentally harmful offshore drilling instead.

Governments have been keeping the oil companies on life support for years. If an equivalent amount of money had been directed into alternate energy, we'd be pretty much sufficiently supplied by now. Lets look at the successes of the "capitalist", as opposed to the "environmentalist" lead: Atlantic fish stocks have collapsed. Tuna sandwiches will soon be a luxury item. We're past peak oil.

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Environmental determinism would go with the latter when faced with this scenario. The reason is that environmental determinism, also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism, is the belief that a physical environment affects social and cultural development.

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Environmental determinism A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in .

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Humans get equal billing with nature; Fiege writes with a keen sense of environmental history as a story of hybridity rather than simply one of human destruction of a passive natural world or, conversely, of environmental determinism. Environmental determinism An approach made by Humboldt and Ritter, 19th century geographers, which concentrated on how the physical environment caused social development, applying laws from the natural sciences to understanding relationships between the physical environment and human actions.

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Environmental determinism is the belief that the environment (most notably its physical factors such as landforms and/or climate) determines the patterns of human culture and societal development. Environmental determinism occupies one end of a continuum, cultural determinism occupies the other; each argues that the human condition is determined simply by nature or simply by culture. Between these two extreme positions lies a broad spectrum of positions described variously as “environmental possibilism” or “environmental probablism.”.