Turning years of research into a single, coherent piece of work can be tough, so we asked for tips from supervisors and recent PhD graduates. We were inundated with tweets and emails — and AcademiaObscura helpfully created a Storify of the tweets. Below is a selection of the best tips. One supervisor told his student that a PhD was about pages long so he wrote pages. Unfortunately the supervisor had meant double-spaced, and the student had written single-spaced.
Getting rid of 40, extra words with two weeks to go is not recommended. But your most important work will come later. Think of your PhD as an apprenticeship. Your peers are unlikely to read your thesis and judge you on it. They are more likely to read any papers articles, chapters, books that result from it. Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have resulted from the present work.
Include the broader implications of your results. Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or discussion. Recommendations Include when appropriate most of the time Remedial action to solve the problem. Further research to fill in gaps in our understanding. Directions for future investigations on this or related topics. Simpson and Hays cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be: Nature , , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commonly asked questions about ozone.
Harper Collins Publishers, New York, pp. Child Review of ciliary structure and function. Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa , Vol. Hutner, editor , Academic Press, New York, Bonani A high altitude continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Tables where more than pages. Calculations where more than pages. You may include a key article as appendix. If you consulted a large number of references but did not cite all of them, you might want to include a list of additional resource material, etc.
List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures. Figures and tables, including captions, should be embedded in the text and not in an appendix, unless they are more than pages and are not critical to your argument. Order of Writing Your thesis is not written in the same order as it is presented in.
The following gives you one idea how to proceed. Here is another approach. Write up a preliminary version of the background section first. This will serve as the basis for the introduction in your final paper. As you collect data, write up the methods section.
It is much easier to do this right after you have collected the data. Be sure to include a description of the research equipment and relevant calibration plots. When you have some data, start making plots and tables of the data. These will help you to visualize the data and to see gaps in your data collection. If time permits, you should go back and fill in the gaps. You are finished when you have a set of plots that show a definite trend or lack of a trend. Be sure to make adequate statistical tests of your results.
Once you have a complete set of plots and statistical tests, arrange the plots and tables in a logical order. Write figure captions for the plots and tables. As much as possible, the captions should stand alone in explaining the plots and tables. Many scientists read only the abstract, figures, figure captions, tables, table captions, and conclusions of a paper.
Be sure that your figures, tables and captions are well labeled and well documented. Once your plots and tables are complete, write the results section. Writing this section requires extreme discipline. You must describe your results, but you must NOT interpret them. If good ideas occur to you at this time, save them at the bottom of the page for the discussion section.
Be factual and orderly in this section, but try not to be too dry. Once you have written the results section, you can move on to the discussion section. This is usually fun to write, because now you can talk about your ideas about the data. Many papers are cited in the literature because they have a good cartoon that subsequent authors would like to use or modify.
In writing the discussion session, be sure to adequately discuss the work of other authors who collected data on the same or related scientific questions. Be sure to discuss how their work is relevant to your work.
If there were flaws in their methodology, this is the place to discuss it. After you have discussed the data, you can write the conclusions section. In this section, you take the ideas that were mentioned in the discussion section and try to come to some closure. If some hypothesis can be ruled out as a result of your work, say so.
If more work is needed for a definitive answer, say that. The final section in the paper is a recommendation section. This is really the end of the conclusion section in a scientific paper. Make recommendations for further research or policy actions in this section. If you can make predictions about what will be found if X is true, then do so. You will get credit from later researchers for this. After you have finished the recommendation section, look back at your original introduction.
Your introduction should set the stage for the conclusions of the paper by laying out the ideas that you will test in the paper. Now that you know where the paper is leading, you will probably need to rewrite the introduction.
You must write your abstract last. All figures and tables should be numbered and cited consecutively in the text as figure 1, figure 2, table 1, table 2, etc. Include a caption for each figure and table, citing how it was constructed reference citations, data sources, etc. Include an index figure map showing and naming all locations discussed in paper.
You are encouraged to make your own figures, including cartoons, schematics or sketches that illustrate the processes that you discuss.
Examine your figures with these questions in mind: Is the figure self-explanatory? Are your axes labeled and are the units indicated?
Show the uncertainty in your data with error bars. If the data are fit by a curve, indicate the goodness of fit. Could chart junk be eliminated? Could non-data ink be eliminated? Could redundant data ink be eliminated? Could data density be increased by eliminating non-data bearing space? Is this a sparse data set that could better be expressed as a table? Does the figure distort the data in any way? Are the data presented in context? Not Helpful 21 Helpful Just start writing about the topic, and once you've gotten a paragraph or two, just write a summary statement of what you've written.
You can always modify your thesis statement as you go, but the pressure is off and the direction is stated. Not Helpful 18 Helpful How to write a thesis statement if the topic is "My Dream Career of being a doctor"? If the dream came true, the thesis statement "although, passing through struggles the dream to serve the nation in a noble uniform of doctor is now the reality.
Not Helpful 12 Helpful Would "The globalisation impacts negatively on the local culture" be a good thesis statement? This is not descriptive enough. Work in a little more detail to lengthen it. Not Helpful 9 Helpful Would this be a good thesis statement?
Not Helpful 1 Helpful 4. How do I build a thesis title regarding increased revenue collections? Research the topic, write down some bullet points and notes on the main evidence. Then, from all the information, write a broad thesis statement. Not Helpful 17 Helpful What would the thesis statement for this title be: Small businesses should have websites to help with their business promotion.
Not Helpful 25 Helpful What would be my thesis if my selected topic is on why climate change is so difficult to deal with? That's up to you. You are supposed to research and come up with a reason why you think climate change is difficult to deal with. Not Helpful 8 Helpful 8. What would be a great thesis statement for the topic: Answer this question Flag as What would be a good thesis statement regarding the social and historical meanings of festival practices?
How do I write a thesis statement about Melinda Sordino's journey from innocence to experience? What would be a good thesis statement regarding the topic "The Key to Success"?
Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Quick Summary To write an effective thesis statement, choose a statement that answers a general question about your topic. Did this summary help you? Tips Think of your thesis as a case a lawyer has to defend. You can also think of your thesis as a contract.
Introducing new ideas the reader is not prepared for may be alienating. An effective thesis statement controls the entire argument. It determines what you cannot say. If a paragraph does not support your thesis, either omit it or change your thesis. Theses and Dissertations In other languages: Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 2,, times. Did this article help you?
Your introduction should set the stage for the conclusions of the paper by laying out the ideas that you will test in the paper. Now that you know where the paper is leading, you will probably need to rewrite the introduction. You must write your abstract last.
This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft. Introduction. Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying.
Develop your thesis statement with the help of the items that we have discussed. Though it may be a small part of your entire paper, it still matters for you to take time creating your thesis statement as it can give weight to your research presentation and how your readers will look into the paper as a whole. Aug 31, · How to Write a Thesis Statement Three Methods: Crafting Great Thesis Statements Getting it Right Finding the Perfect Thesis Community Q&A Whether you’re writing a short essay or a doctoral dissertation, your thesis statement can be one of the trickiest sentences to formulate%().
Many PhD students are now in the final throes of writing their thesis. Turning years of research into a single, coherent piece of work can be tough, so we asked for tips from supervisors and recent PhD graduates.