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School Shootings and Violence. Guns in the Classroom School Shootings and Violence Everyday in America millions of community go to domesticate, whether its a you Are single-sex schools better for education? What is single-sex school? The two superpowers plunged into one of their biggest Cold War confrontations after the pilot of an American U-2 spy plane making a high-altitude pass over Cuba on October 14, , photographed a Soviet SS-4 medium-range ballistic missile being assembled for installation.
President Kennedy was briefed about the situation on October 16, and he immediately called together a group of advisors and officials known as the executive committee, or ExCom. For nearly the next two weeks, the president and his team wrestled with a diplomatic crisis of epic proportions, as did their counterparts in the Soviet Union. For the American officials, the urgency of the situation stemmed from the fact that the nuclear-armed Cuban missiles were being installed so close to the U.
From that launch point, they were capable of quickly reaching targets in the eastern U. If allowed to become operational, the missiles would fundamentally alter the complexion of the nuclear rivalry between the U. The Soviets had long felt uneasy about the number of nuclear weapons that were targeted at them from sites in Western Europe and Turkey, and they saw the deployment of missiles in Cuba as a way to level the playing field.
Another key factor in the Soviet missile scheme was the hostile relationship between the U. The Kennedy administration had already launched one attack on the island—the failed Bay of Pigs invasion in —and Castro and Khrushchev saw the missiles as a means of deterring further U. From the outset of the crisis, Kennedy and ExCom determined that the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba was unacceptable. The challenge facing them was to orchestrate their removal without initiating a wider conflict—and possibly a nuclear war.
In deliberations that stretched on for nearly a week, they came up with a variety of options, including a bombing attack on the missile sites and a full-scale invasion of Cuba.
But Kennedy ultimately decided on a more measured approach. First, he would employ the U. Navy to establish a blockade, or quarantine, of the island to prevent the Soviets from delivering additional missiles and military equipment. Second, he would deliver an ultimatum that the existing missiles be removed. In a television broadcast on October 22, , the president notified Americans about the presence of the missiles, explained his decision to enact the blockade and made it clear that the U.
Following this public declaration, people around the globe nervously waited for the Soviet response. Some Americans, fearing their country was on the brink of nuclear war, hoarded food and gas. A crucial moment in the unfolding crisis arrived on October 24, when Soviet ships bound for Cuba neared the line of U. An attempt by the Soviets to breach the blockade would likely have sparked a military confrontation that could have quickly escalated to a nuclear exchange.
A deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U. On the other hand, we must also strike a balance whereby these sacrifices are not necessary. Ultimately, it is our full understanding that the distinctions in the arms race between our tactical long-term abilities and superior stock of weapons and the Soviet Union's decidedly less capable and smaller stock do not constitute…… [Read More].
Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis Specifically it will discuss what Kennedy says are the most important lessons that he learned from the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Cuban Missile Crisis took place in October , and almost resulted in a nuclear war over ussian warheads in Cuba. Kennedy says he learned many things from the crisis, most importantly, that many differing views are the key to good deliberation. Today, that idea is often dismissed, calling for a general consensus on a topic, and that his implications for the U. Foreign policy in many areas. Late in the book, Kennedy writes, "I believe our deliberations proved conclusively how important it is that the President have the recommendations and opinions of more than one individual, of more than one department, and of more than one point-of-view" Kennedy This is a central idea to democracy and our two-party system of government, which…… [Read More].
American President John F. Kennedy's handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis played an important role in averting nuclear war between the Soviets and Americans. Kennedy's choice to avoid a military attack on Cuba was especially important, as was his decision to negotiate diplomatically with Soviet President Nikita Khrushchev. Kennedy's discovery that the Soviet Union had nuclear missiles in nearby communist Cuba. President Kennedy learned of the buildup of nuclear weapons, which included the installation of offensive nuclear missiles, on October 16th, At that date, the Soviet Union's nuclear missiles in Cuba were just 90 miles from U.
This tension lasted until the Cuban missile crisis was ended officially-although unknown to the American public, only officially Chomsky Later in September after several missions by the United States such as "Operation Mongoose" and "ay of Pigs" failed to overthrow the Cuban regime, the regime and the Soviet Union secretly began to build several medium and intermediate range ballistic nuclear-armed missiles that could hit and destroy most of continental USA.
The participation of the Soviet Union was perhaps partly in response to…… [Read More]. Cuban Missile Crisis There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.
In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union. Diplomatic Problems The Cuban Missile. Many did not agree with this action because Senators Fulbright and Russell believed it would lead to an air strike on est Berlin or a blockade of that city.
They knew it would lead to war. Kennedy had few choices but instead did not back down and lead the country through the crisis. He never "lost sight of the fact that once military action started, there was no telling at what level of escalation it could be stopped" Stern , p.
Timing caused many of the problems Kennedy faced during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Many critics surmise the failure of the blockade but really its lack of strength came down to the fact Kennedy hesitated because he waited for OAS approval. This allowed for Soviet ships to arrive safely to Cuba before the escalation and this represents weakness on Kennedy's part. He was not…… [Read More]. Cuban Five Criminals or Antiterrorist.
Cuban Five as Criminals The Five as Antiterrorists Whether the Cuban Five are terrorists or not has to be seen from an international perspective that is impartial and takes into consideration the viewpoints of the Cubans as well as the Americans.
The question has gained particular relevance in light of the international protests that consider the Cuban Five as antiterrorists and not criminals. You'd need a lot more than a good lawyer to be taken seriously. Cuban Politics Cuba Is Considered. Therefore, for the international scene to actually consider that change is taking place in Cuba none of Fidel Castro's men should be part of the government or the administration.
In trying to establish an ascendant trend for the Cuban national and international image, Raul Castro must also deal with the issue of totalitarian rule and that of the state authoritarian leadership in a different manner that one which destroys his authority as state ruler. However, any such measures must include a combination of the implementation of slow democratic measures, and the maintenance of a certain authority especially from the perspective of any political forces that may rise against the system.
This is part of the model implemented in China, whose aim was precisely that of controlling the political power while being committed to opening up to foreign investments and western influence. The international reaction to the rise of Raul Castro…… [Read More].
Crisis as Robert Kennedy Reveals. President, what if we were to present to you such an ultimatum as you have presented to us by your actions. How would you react to it? I think you would be outraged at such a move on our part. And this we would understand…Our ties with the Republic of Cuba, as well as our relations with other nations, regardless of their political system, concern only the two countries between which these relations exist.
And, if it were a matter of quarantine as mentioned in your letter, then, as is customary in international practice, it can be established only by states agreeing between themselves, and not by some third party. Quarantines exist, for example, on agricultural goods and products. However, in this case we are not talking about quarantines, but rather about much more…… [Read More].
Truman in Hypothetical Crisis as. Kennedy recognizes the need to establish a bond with all the South American leaders, thereby isolating Chavez-Chavez politically as ineffective leader in South America.
Kennedy perceived the Third orld in terms of the "national military establishment," and vulnerable to the manipulations of the Soviet Union Schwab, Orrin, , 1. Kennedy had already gone around with Cuba, and did not wish to repeat his mistakes in Venezuela, but he also had no intention of surrendering Venezuela to the Soviet Union in the way in which Cuba had been surrendered before him.
President Kennedy saw South American diplomacy as the route to turning Venezuela away from bonding with the Soviet Union. He recognized that he could not alienate the rest of South America from the United States, or that would drive them into the sphere of Venezuela's influence over them towards the Soviet Union.
Kennedy calls a meeting with Chavez-Chavez, in private,…… [Read More]. Mobilisation Crisis and War the. One of the most famous crises that was based on misinterpretation and a zero-sum game was the 's Cuban Missile Crisis when misperceptions or fake induced information could have led from a crisis to a conflict and a war. Conflict in the international arena is often lead by perceptions and power politics games that often are not based on realistic evidence.
Conflict is nonetheless a measurable phenomena as many conflicts are also based on other issues than misperceptions, power needs or behavioral changes in a country's leadership. These are different economic interests over material goods, like oil or gas, positional goods like political influence or territorial. More and more, international relations theorists and analyzers have looked within countries and systems to understand the international arena. The internal struggles for power, equilibrium and social welfare are as important in the development of world politics as the aforementioned types of causes.
Intelligence the Success of U S. This flexibility gave U. Finally, and most surprisingly, the U. Rather than being influenced by the political platforms of politicians, the intelligence community focused on the matter at hand, to great effect "Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis". These three factors were most influential in the successful actions of the U. Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Cold War Leadership Study in Contrasts.
I hope by an examination of the correspondence exchanged by these two leaders during the period to demonstrate that Kennedy's handling of the crisis, while marked by some errors, was more responsible than Khrushchev's. In some sense, the Cuban Missile Crisis began as an irresponsible gamble by Khrushchev: Olmec Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs.
Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between B. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber. Others became priests or teachers. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…… [Read More]. U S History and Foreign Policy. Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.
In Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south.
The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition. The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.
Harkins of…… [Read More]. U S Foreign Affairs Since President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over. In , when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war BBC The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February By March , the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December , there were , servicemen stationed in the country BBC However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred.
Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…… [Read More]. Negotiation the Power of Negotiation. Kennedy had to find out what the other side really wanted. Thus, Khrushchev had used intermediate-range missiles in Cuba because a "deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U. In short, the U. Reframe Kennedy shifted to openness, from secrecy, and declared that any nuclear action launched from Cuba against a nation of…… [Read More].
Criminal Justice - Intelligence Does. The major participants in the Cuban Missile Crisis were in many ways driven by intelligence information to make the decisions upon which the crisis centered. The Soviet Union and its puppet nation Cuba relied on the heavy detail they received from their own agencies and believed that as a result of the failure and humiliation of the U. Khrushchev had formulated the plan Graham Allison's Conceptual Models Assessing.
Thus, foreign policy decisions are not actually decisions at all, but rather unplanned outcomes that result from "compromise, coalition, competition, and confusion among government officials who see different faces of an issue" Though Allison once again uses the analogy of players to illustrate this model, these players are not all on the same team. Instead, the players are political bureaucrats attempting to win the game by getting the best solution to their problems without loosing their own world interests.
A variety of theories about the decision to go to ar in Iraq suggest that the Bureaucratic Politics Model may be an excellent fit to the foreign policy decision. The most prominent is the theory that the ar in Iraq was essentially a war for oil. According to Alan Greenspan, the former chairman of the Federal Reserve and a conservative, in his biography, the United States went to war…… [Read More].
The major issues of American foreign policy during the s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation towards the end of the decade.
The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.
With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…… [Read More].
Foreign Relations of the U S. A second lesson was found in Kennedy's management of the crisis. The basic lesson learned was that, in the midst of such a crisis, leaders need time away from the glare of the media to resolve their own thinking and communications, and they need the self-confidence to limit their objectives to only what is needed to resolve the crisis, not "win" it.
It is believed that the Soviet's lesson was that you can't mess with nuclear weapons. In other words, when it gets to the point that you know you might destroy millions of innocent people, that is the depth of fear that leaders must realize, confront, and not back away from.
What they must do is back away from the unnecessary and catastrophic events their pride might trigger. The lessons learned by European leaders were probably not good ones. Kennedy did not consult with them during this crisis. Kennedy's Legacy What John F. In this Kennedy appeared to be following up on his anti-Communist speech with anti-Communist actions.
Kennedy had the entire United States military at his disposal. All he had to do was use them. Kennedy wanted to appear strong but did not want to have to be strong - image meant everything. Operation Mongoose continued the entire Cuban situation.
It relied upon covert use of the CIA to make any and all attempts necessary to overthrow the Cuban government. On the heels of the Bay of Pigs failure, Kennedy attempted another poorly conceived attempt to rid himself of Castro. The operation essentially failed before it could possibly begin. Time after time, plans were brought out to be replaced by others.
And those plans were impossibly strange…… [Read More]. These are the recommendations of this council. The Cold War…… [Read More]. Ceases to Amaze Me That. Because of the high stakes that surrounded each character's decisions, Thirteen Days remained exciting even during technical discussions of policy. Not only was it entertaining, then, but it also greatly increased my understanding of the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the methods by which decisions are reached, in Washington and probably in most -- if not all -- current and historical halls of government during times of crisis.
The negotiation and circumvention of the many personalities involved in powerful, history-making decisions is a delicate and complex dance that only true masters can maneuver in, and in Thirteen Days both Kennedy brothers and, to a degree, Robert S. McNamara were all portrayed as such political masters. On a somewhat less profound though perhaps more practical level, this film also taught me about the way decision are negotiated between the civilian and military government officials. Though the President is ostensibly…… [Read More].
Cold War It is important to note from the onset that the Cold War was not essentially a war that involved conventional military weaponry. It was a war that largely involved the utilization of surrogates, propaganda, and economics -- it was a war of words. In that regard therefore, the Cold War was in basic terms the uneasy relationship that primarily developed between the U.
The Cold War was caused by a variety of factors. In this text, I will analyze two of the many events that may have, in one way or another, deepened the Cold War. Kennedy and Brinkley President John Fitzgerald Kennedy is an important figure in American history and was instrumental in shaping the American identity in the second half of the twentieth century. His personality and optimism, as well as his heroism in the Second orld ar helped the country to formulate a hope that the s could be a time of renewal and rebirth in the United States of America.
In recent years, the more scandalous aspects of his life have overtaken his historical significance, something that should be remedied and his importance restored. Most importantly, his actions during the Cold ar between the United States and the U. In Alan Brinkley's book John F. Kenney, the author attempts to explain the man in terms of his place in history and how his personal abilities and charisma were able to…… [Read More]. Western Civilization the Truman.
The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred after the U. This discovery was especially alarming because now the U. After a naval blockade around Cuba and intense negotiations the U.
Charismatic Leadership of John F. Had the failure of the Cuban invasion not occurred, Kennedy would not have been able to appear so ascendant, and the positive reaction to his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis might not have been as great in magnitude.
Truly however, it was his social programs such as the Peace Corps and his focus on establishing peace with the Soviet Union that truly showed him to be the charismatic leader for which he is remembered today. Accessed 21 January United tates and Fidel Castro's Cuba, now more than forty years old, is still a source of great political and moral contention. The collapse of the oviet Union and, with it, the end of the Cold War, signaled a change in the implications of the type of socialism governing Cuba.
The alleged threats that had hovered so close to the continental U.. Cuba, once a unique and remote ally to the U In the Western Hemisphere, they are alone, paying for what most American citizens will tell you is…… [Read More].
International Affairs Security Studies.
In conclusion, the major events prior to the Cuban Missile Crisis were the Cuban Revolution, and the Bay of Pigs Invasion. The main causes of the crisis were the Soviet Union hidden agendas and the Cuban insecurity, which was caused by the United States of America.
Essay: Cuban Missile Crisis During the administration of United States President John F. Kennedy, the Cold War reached its most dangerous state, and the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) came to the edge of nuclear war in what was known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Cuban Missile Crisis Essay Prompts Essay prompts in this lesson provide ready to use tools you can incorporate into your American History unit on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Prompts integrate research, media literacy, and critical thinking standards to fit a variety of needs. Mar 27, · Cuban missile crisisÂ Nuclear catastrophe was hanging by a thread and we werent counting days or hours, exclusively minutes. Soviet General and Army Chief of Operations, Anatoly Gribkov. The closest the adult male has ever been to thermonuclear war Author: Kylie Turner.
- Cuban Missile Crisis Analysis Works Cited Missing The Cuban Missile Crisis was one of the most important events in United States history; it’s even easy to say world history because of what some . May 10, · Words: Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Cuban Missile Crisis of October is widely regarded as the most dangerous moment of the Cold War, and one which, "brought the world to the brink of the unthinkable" (light & Welch, ).