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Supply Chain Glossary - I
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Continuous And Intermittent Production

In other words, the flow of production is not continuous. In this system, large varieties of products are produced. These products are of different sizes. The design of these products goes on changing. It keeps changing according to the design and size of the product. Therefore, this system is very flexible. Following are examples on the intermittent production system.

Please refer above chart while reading examples given below. Scenario 6 proposed the following mix of renewable energies:. The study found that for Scenario 6, "a significant number of hours characterized by extreme system situations occurred where load and reserve requirements could not be met.

The results of the network study indicated that for such extreme renewable penetration scenarios, a system re-design is required, rather than a reinforcement exercise. Estimates of the cost of wind energy may include estimates of the "external" costs of wind variability, or be limited to the cost of production. All electrical plant has costs that are separate from the cost of production, including, for example, the cost of any necessary transmission capacity or reserve capacity in case of loss of generating capacity.

Many types of generation, particularly fossil fuel derived, will also have cost externalities such as pollution, greenhouse gas emission, and habitat destruction which are generally not directly accounted for. The magnitude of the economic impacts is debated and will vary by location, but is expected to rise with higher penetration levels.

At low penetration levels, costs such as operating reserve and balancing costs are believed to be insignificant. Intermittency may introduce additional costs that are distinct from or of a different magnitude than for traditional generation types.

Studies have been performed to determine the costs of variability. National Grid notes that "increasing levels of such renewable generation on the system would increase the costs of balancing the system and managing system frequency.

The study classified "Intermittency" as "Not a significant issue" for the target but a "Significant Issue" for the target. There are differing views about some sources of renewable energy and intermittency.

The World Nuclear Association argues that the sun, wind, tides and waves cannot be controlled to provide directly either continuous base-load power, or peak-load power when it is needed. For many years there was a consensus within the electric utilities in the U. Thomas Petersnik, an analyst with the U. Energy Information Administration put it this way: The uncorrected for their intermittency "unbuffered" EROEI for each energy source analyzed is as depicted in the attached table at right, [] [] while the buffered corrected for their intermittency EROEI stated in the paper for all low carbon power sources, with the exception of nuclear and biomass, were yet lower still.

Supporters say that the total electricity generated from a large-scale array of dispersed wind farms , located in different wind regimes, cannot be accurately described as intermittent, because it does not start up or switch off instantaneously at irregular intervals.

Typical hydroelectric plants in the dam configuration may have substantial storage capacity, and be considered dispatchable. Run of the river hydroelectric generation will typically have limited or no storage capacity, and will be variable on a seasonal or annual basis dependent on rainfall and snow melt. Amory Lovins suggests a few basic strategies to deal with these issues:.

Moreover, efficient energy use and energy conservation measures can reliably reduce demand for base-load and peak-load electricity. Methods to manage wind power integration range from those that are commonly used at present e. Improved forecasting can also contribute as the daily and seasonal variations in wind and solar sources are to some extent predictable. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Interconnect geographically dispersed, technologically diverse renewable generation types such as wind, solar, and tidal to smooth out daily supply variability.

For example, solar power generation is highest at midday, and wind is often strongest at night and early morning. The combined solar-wind resource has lower variance than either individual source.

Use dispatchable renewable energy generators such as hydroelectric, geothermal, and biomass to fill energy deficits between demand and intermittent resource generation. Use demand response or demand-side management to shift flexible loads to a time when more renewable energy is available, and away from times when renewable generation is low.

This requires that loads be capable of receiving and responding to price or control signals from the local utility or grid operator. Store excess renewable power, which would otherwise be curtailed, for later use at times when generation is not sufficient to meet load. Some energy storage technology types include pumped hydro, electrochemical batteries, flywheels, compressed air, and hydrogen. Customer-sited storage is typically used to increase self-consumption of distributed energy resources such as photovoltaic panels, to shift grid power consumption towards off-peak hours, and to reduce demand charges.

Over-size renewable peak generation capacity to minimize the times when available renewable power is less than demand, and to provide spare power to produce hydrogen for flexible transportation and heat uses. Use electric vehicles as an additional storage resource. A further development, known as V2B vehicle-to-building , sees bidirectional power flow into the vehicle at optimal times, and out of the vehicle to meet building demand.

The most advanced form, known as V2G Vehicle-to-grid , sees power exported from the EV back on to the grid when needed. Forecast the weather winds, sunlight, waves, tides and precipitation to better plan for energy supply needs. National Grid Reserve Service. HVDC and Super grid. Renewable Electricity and the Grid and Energy security and renewable technology. Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources. Archived from the original PDF on January [commissioned June ].

Archived from the original on Capacity Factor, Intermittency, and what happens when the wind doesn't blow? National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved December 19, How solar thermal can replace coal, gas and oil". Integration of Renewable energy on Farms. Connecting wind farms can make a more reliable and cheaper power source". Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. Graham Sinden analysed over 30 years of hourly wind speed data from 66 sites spread out over the United Kingdom.

He found that the correlation coefficient of wind power fell from 0. There were no hours in the data set where wind speed was below the cut-in wind speed of a modern wind turbine throughout the United Kingdom, and low wind speed events affecting more than 90 per cent of the United Kingdom had an average recurrent rate of only one hour per year.

Institute of Environmental Studies. Retrieved 15 January The British Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 22 May Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. Archived from the original PDF on January 11, Archived from the original on 7 June Annual Report Archived at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 25 January Climate Fix or Folly". Retrieved 20 Oct The definition of observational study with examples. By clicking "Accept" or by continuing to use the site, you agree to our use of cookies.

Visit our privacy policy , cookie policy and consent tool to learn more. The following are illustrative examples. Continuous Production A snowboard manufacturer produces a men's model of snowboard for 12 weeks on a continuous production line to build stock for the coming winter. At the end of the 12 weeks, the line is reconfigured and a women's model of board is produced for 14 weeks. Batch Production A bakery produces 12 batches of cookies each morning.

After the cookies, machines are reconfigured and the production line is used to produce muffins. Contract Manufacturer A contract manufacturer produces cosmetics to customer specifications.

They operate a single production line that might produce 60 different products in a month. They often do a run for a few hours, change the line and do another run.

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A manufacturing method of producing several different products using the same production line. Once an initial production line has run, a second product will be produced which increases the amount of productivity a company is capable of at one time.

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In continuous Production System, goods are produced on a large scale, so there are economies of large-scale production. Per unit cost: In intermittent production system, cost per unit may be higher because production is done on a small-scale.

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Intermittent production system Intermittent means something that starts (initiates) and stops (halts) at irregular (unfixed) intervals (time gaps). In the intermittent production system, goods are produced based on customer's orders. Intermittent production is the common practice of using the same production line to produce different types of goods. The following are illustrative examples.

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A intermittent production process a production process in which the production run is short and machines are changed frequently to make different products. Intermittent Production System According to E.S Buffa, intermittent production situations are those where the facilities must be flexible enough to handle a variety of products and sizes, or where the basic nature of the activity imposes change of important characteristics of the input (e.g., change in .