An article from the New England Journal of Medicine in states the main cause of asthma is hereditary, and it will be passed down from generation to generation, however, that is not the only cause. Asthma can be established in ones body by an excess of stress, an unhealthy diet, dust mites, or the increased pollution in America. There are some ways a person can tell if they have become stricken with the disorder. Once a person is diagnosed with Asthma, they will have to become familiar with some of the triggers that instigate a flare up.
Colds and flu allergies also may cause difficulty on breathing. People experience difficulty breathing mins. When you feel short of breathe that means the following has arose in your lungs: The inner lining of the breathing tubes swell and become filled with excessive amounts of mucus. Body Paragraph I I. Common first signs of Asthma to look for are: Wheezing can create air pockets in lungs B.
Breathlessness air knocked out of you C. Chest tightness hard to inhale, exhale, or both D. Some common triggers among a majority of Asthmatics include: Certain foods and drinks 1. The patient also stated that everytime he coughed, a thick, white mucous came out.
Patient was admitted through the ER of another hospital several years ago due to an episode of bronchitis. Patient states his symptoms back then were very similar to the ones he has presently, such as the wheezing, chest pain and diaphoresis. Bayer aspirin 81mg once a day Glucosamine and Chondroitin mg once a day Family History: Father passed away from a community acquired pneumonia three years ago at the age of Mother died at 68 of natural causes.
The patient is married and lives with his three sons and wife in the suburbs. Patient has been an asbestos handler for almost twenty years. On his free time he enjoys bike riding with his sons.
Patient has been a one pack a day smoker for the past twenty years, with limited alcohol use. Intermittent chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing and diaphoresis. Patient was alert and oriented to time, date and place.
We will write a custom essay sample on Case Study: His vitals were taken and recorded. Patient was noted sitting in upright position, with excessive use of his accessory muscles of respiration.
It was noted that he had diminished breath sounds on inspiration and expiration. He was tachypneic and tachycardic with a continuous and productive cough with white sputum. Pulmonary Function tests were performed on Mr. The results showed that the air exhaled after maximum inspiration and the air exhaled after maximum inspiration were less than the expected total value as well as his total lung capacity.
Worldwide asthma is one of the most common childhood diseases, and its exact cause is idiopathic Kaufman, Asthma is considered a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that is reversible. The number one trigger being household allergens Casey, The lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles that are affected by asthma.
Asthma is commonly known for causing airway inflammation and narrowing of the airway leading to bronchoconstriction, edema, cough, wheezing and tightness of the chest Kaufman, Airway inflammation in asthma is characterized by the release of chemical mediators.
These mediators include histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. These mediators initiate the inflammatory response causing dilation of the blood vessels increasing blood flow, vasoconstriction and leaky capillaries Boulet, This is usually seen when the airway becomes irritated, the irritation is initiated by the release of immunoglobulin E IgE Kaufman, IgE sits on the mast cells which are located all over the body, they cause them to degranulate which incites the inflammatory response Casey, The major risk factors in the development of asthma are being genetically predisposed to the disease, occupation, smoking, drastic weather changes, pollution and both indoor and outdoor allergens such as animals and pollen Boulet, Asthma not only has risk factors, but has triggers associated with inducing an asthma attack.
These triggers include strenuous exercise, stress, cold, heat, weather changes, medications and odors related to smoke and perfumes. The most common symptoms associated with asthma are dyspnea, cough and wheezing Kaufman, Exacerbations as in exercise-induced attacks include a chocking sensation, which is relatively uncommon Casey, A physical examination can help the doctor come up with a diagnosis which can be confirmed by several tests.
The use of accessory muscles, a present cough and wheezing on expiration are pinpoints to the doctor Kaufman The peak expiratory flow PEF test is designed to estimate the maximum lung inflation, these measurements should be consistently taken for two weeks.
The patient is encouraged to keep a diary and measure PEF in the morning and at night. The higher the number the better airflow the patient has achieved Kaufman, Also the forced vital capacity FVC test, is testing for the volume of air expired after maximal inhalation.
The forced expiratory volume FEV test is testing for the maximum air exhaled from the lungs Casey, An elevated WBC count accounts for an inflammatory response that has taken place Boulet, A sputum is culture is taken early in morning prior to the patient taking any medications or eating Greener, The sputum culture will reveal if there is any bacteria indicating an infection Kaufman, Finally chest X-ray can be taken to rule out other possible complications related to respiratory problems Casey, It is crucial for the patient to initiate treatment at the step most appropriate to the initial severity of their asthma so an appropriate treatment can be prescribed Kaufman, The first treatment recommended for mild-intermittent asthma is a short-acting beta2 agonist such as albuterol, salbutamol or terbutaline all three may be taken by inhalation.
All three medications produce bronchodilitation by relaxing the muscles in the airway increasing air flow to the lungs. Proventil Albuterol Sulfate should be shaken prior to administering and two puffs mcg should be taken hours as needed.
This medication may be administered thirty minutes before working out to prevent exercise induced asthma. This drug is a CNS stimulant therefore patients should be aware of some side effects: Some of the side effects related with taking this medication are back pain, stuffy nose, muscle pain, nausea and changes in the voice.
Symbicort Budesonide and Formoterol inhalation is an inhaled corticosteroid that reduces both inflammation and edema of the airway. If this therapy is not successful a long acting beta2 agonist can be added for example Serevent Diskus Salmeterol , this inhaler relaxes the muscles of the airway improving breathing should be taken twice daily, one oral inhalation of 50 mcg.
If the patient continues to experience poor control of their asthma a leukotriene receptor antagonist such as Singulair Montelukast can be taken 10 mg by mouth preferably in the evening, will help reduce inflammation, mucous production and bronchoconstriction. Methylxanthine is a long acting class of drug that dilates the bronchi. Unlike the other drugs, methylxanthine has a narrow therapeutic index causing toxic levels to build up fairly quickly if not monitored. Antibiotics are used if the patient has a bacterial infection Greener, Expectorants Mucinex D come as an extended release bi-layer release tablet to be taken twice a day.
This prevents the buildup of mucous which can lead to a mucous plug Kaufman, Asthma is a disease that if not treated in its earlier stages can lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder COPD.
COPD is an irreversible condition causing permanent damage to the lungs elasticity and hyperinflation of the lungs emphysema Casey,
This essay will discuss on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, medical management and clinical manifestations of asthma. It will also cover the client education needed to provide for those with asthma, asthma's risk factors and its prognosis.
- Exercise Induced Asthma "Asthma is a pulmonary disease with the following characteristics: 1) airway obstruction that is reversible in most patients either spontaneously or with treatment; 2) airway inflammation; and 3) increased airway responsiveness to a variety of stimuli" (Enright, , p. ).
Asthma can also be classified into two categories; extrinsic (atopic) and intrinsic (non-atopic) asthma (Fahy, ). For this case study, I would be discussing some characteristics of asthma, diagnosis and treatment recommendations and current research in stratified medicine. This paper will discuss pathogenesis of asthma, normal functioning of the respiratory system, the signs and symptoms of asthma, and the effects asthma has on the rest of the body. Definition of Asthma Asthma is a disease that affects the lungs. /5(5).
Asthma Essay Examples. 40 total results. An Analysis of a Research Paper on Asthma a Chronic Illness Which Affects Many People. 1, words. 3 pages. Asthma Cases Reaching Epic Proportions Alarmed US Health Department. 1, words. 2 pages. Asthma is a condition of the bronchial tubes characterized by episodes of constriction and increased mucous production. A person with asthma has bronchial tubes that are super sensitive to various stimuli, or triggers, that can produce asthma symptom.