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How do I Write an Essay Using References?

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Reference lists

How to Cite
Ways to Incorporate References in an Essay
Advantages of Specifying References When Writing an Essay

Remember to list all the books and articles you use for the essay in a Reference List. This is a list of all works cited in your essay, and should be the final page. Skip to main content. Sign on Search Menu.

Jobs and career portal. International students Disabilities New students. Accommodation Health services Sport and gym. The basics Print to PDF. See Plagiarism and academic integrity Make sure you are familiar with the referencing style your faculty or school requires. See The Learning Centre guides to various citation styles Reference lists Remember to list all the books and articles you use for the essay in a Reference List.

Essay and assignment writing. Essay and assignment planning. Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals. Adjust in-text citations if you have multiple sources from an author. When they look up the source on your Works Cited sheet, they will find two different articles by James Smith.

To avoid this confusion, you must include a shortened version of the essay's title, so the readers know which essay to look for. It could be argued that Sethe is haunted by "the physical persistence of memory" Smith, "Beloved" Include the first initial if you have authors with the same last name. An in-text citation of Smith doesn't tell the reader which author provided the information. In that case, include the first initial of the author's last name in the in-text citation: Format the citation in the Works Cited.

When the reader sees a quote or idea that they would like to know more about, they will look up the source author by the last name you listed in the in-text citation. They will also know which page of the source they should look at to find the information they want.

Depending on where you found the essay, your citation will follow a different format. Regardless of what format you follow, one thing remains constant across all citations. You always indent all lines that come after the first line of a Works Cited citation.

This lets the reader know where one citation ends and the next one begins. MLA also uses title case ever time a title is given. This means that first word and all major words are capitalized: The Sound and the Fury. This is distinguished from sentence case, in which only the first word is capitalized: The sound and the fury.

Follow the format for an essay found in an anthology. In this case, you must include the following information in this exact order: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Include different information for essays published in journals. If you found the article in an academic journal, you have a different set of information to include. Some of the information — like author name, essay title, and page range — stay the same. But you should follow this format exactly: Add electronic information for sources found in online databases. These databases store electronic versions of print journals as PDFs.

The article you're citing may have originally appeared in a print journal, but you accessed it online.

You need to let the reader know how they, too, can access it online: The date of access is the date on which you found the essay. In MLA, all dates follow this format: Determine if APA is the right style for your document. APA is the formatting style for the American Psychological Association, but it's used in the social sciences, business, and nursing as well. Learn what information to include in-text. In APA, though, you must add a third element: A further difference from MLA is that you include the in-text citation wherever the cited information is.

If you mention the author by name in the sentence, the year appears in parentheses immediately after it. Morrow argues that "quoted material" p. The page number always appears immediately after the quoted or referenced material appears. Morrow argues that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite p. If you don't name the author in the sentence, put all three pieces of information in the parenthetical citation.

It may be argued that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite Morrow, , p. The order of information in the parenthetical always goes Author, Year, Page. Distinguish in-text between multiple sources by the same author. The first essay will be considered "a," the second "b," and so on.

Add this letter designation to the year in the in-text citation to show which essay you're discussing. You would list the year for "Summer in the South" as a.

Morrow argues that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" a, p. Add the first initial if you have authors with the same last name. Imagine that you have essays by Morgan Morrow and Timothy Morrow, but you want to cite Morgan's essay: It could be argued that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" M.

Format the citation in the Reference List. Essay found in a print anthology: Title of chapter in sentence case. Title of article in sentence case. Decide which kind of Chicago style formatting you should use. The catch is that there are actually two system of Chicago formatting.

It provides notes at the bottom of the page, and sometimes a full bibliography at the end of the text. It provides parenthetical in-text citations that include the author and date of publication, as well as a bibliography. Place footnotes at the bottom of the page. At the end of the sentence that contains the borrowed material, place a number in superscript.

Match each source to its information in the text by using the same number, but do not raise it into superscript. Put endnotes after the body of the paper. Format your notes properly. The first line of each source is indented, just like a paragraph, but subsequent lines are not.

Publisher, Year , Page range. Essay found in print journal: Essay accessed through online database: If not available, add the url. Shorten the note for each source after the first usage. You can provide only the name and page number, or name, shortened title, and page number.

Either way, you include a note pointing the reader to the first note for that source, where they can find full bibliographic information.

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Reference Page. Every essay that uses research and outside information must also include a reference page where the sources are listed. The reference page is a separate page that comes at the end of the essay and lists your sources in alphabetical order by last name of the author.

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Use footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources. Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the same page as the information you cited, while endnotes should be written in a list on a separate page at the end of the essay, according to dommonet.tk

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The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above. Knapper, C.K. and Cropley, A. Lifelong Learning and Higher Education. Aug 29,  · In the Reference List, you will list multiple essays by the same author alphabetically by the first major word of the title. The first essay will be considered "a," the second "b," and so on. Add this letter designation to the year in the in-text citation to show which essay you're dommonet.tk: K.

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The essay reference at the end of a publication is a list of books and other literary sources, sections of which the writer indicated as quoted or paraphrased in his essay. The inclusion of other authoritative sources as reference is generally required for formal essays to enhance the credibility of the writer. The incorporation of references in your essay will depend on the format that you will use. Though APA format is commonly followed in most reference essays, there are still a lot of ways on how you can include your sources in your writing.