History has a way of constantly repeating itself. Indeed, in response to Enron's late bankruptcy, Congress enacted the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of but the Lehman Brothers' bankruptcy in late made it clear that there was still a problem in some sectors of American business.
This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine how the integrity of corporate finance, ethics, and other responsibilities have improved, what the corporate finance industry culture…… [Read More].
Military Integrity Adverse Affects of. A leader of integrity is well aware of the Army Values and how important they are in defining character traits that aid in the development of discipline and the ability to maintain that discipline Army These values breed integrity which in turn results in the type of discipline necessary for a soldier to recognize the right course of action and to continue that course, no matter the difficulty encountered Army For leaders, these qualities are even more important because soldiers follow their leaders' examples, thus a leader must demonstrate the values and integrity that encourage his soldiers to excel in every task they attempt and within every aspect of their…… [Read More].
Contracting Officer Integrity in Business. The government official has a legal as well as an ethical responsibility to put the interests of the public first, as a public servant. To fail to do so will result in greater cost to the taxpayer, and perhaps even an inferior product. This type of waste takes money away from other, more worthy public projects as well, including aid to the poor. Government contracting officers have unique responsibilities and special, additional privileges as a result of their duties: He or she will be the one to sign the final contract agreement, and only a Contracting Officer has the power to change the terms of the contract" Government contracting personnel: The contracting officer is thus acting on behalf of the entire government, and has unique powers…… [Read More].
Privacy Protection in e-Commerce Websites Privacy Protection in e-Commerce Websites Back in the 90s, websites were more or less digital brochures that did little more than serve their registered users with monthly electronic newsletters.
Today, however, websites are powerful and complex information platforms that not only store and process data, but also allow for the sharing of information across a wide range of online platforms.
We share personal data on these websites, and unfortunately, the same passes on to numerous other parties, compromising our own security as well as that of our families in the process. The situation is even worse in the case of e-commerce websites.
Whilst they have made shopping a whole lot easier by bringing specialty retail within a few clicks, they have also sprawled up opportunities for thieves who now find it a whole lot easier to obtain personal information and credit card numbers from…… [Read More]. Sexual Integrity If you're confused about sex, you've come to the right place. The Bible, more than any other modern resource, offers clear-cut guidelines for how to deal with sexuality and sexual behavior.
In fact, sex is one of the Bible's favorite subjects. Throughout both the Old and New Testaments, the Bible offers advice for young people and old regarding their sexual conduct, sexual morals, and heterosexual relationships. The Bible spells out clearly what behaviors will make you happy and which will cause you problems. Now, you don't need a Bible to realize that improper sexual conduct can lead to problems like disease or to parenthood before you are ready. However, when you are confused, turn to the Bible for inspiration and guidance.
In spite of what you might think, the Bible is pro-sex. The Bible teaches that sex can be a sacred and profoundly spiritual act of union between…… [Read More]. Explain the fact that there is a greater investment from the business side instead of that of tech people working as a steward? Please elaborate on the data management and privacy aspects of stewardship? Is this a common problem not doing this? If not, why not a fulltime job? Used to emphasize low money aspect? Can you elaborate on the importance of metadata in best practices of D.
How long will D. If so, what aspects…… [Read More]. The Environment Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries. In fact, it is believed that tourism will grow at approximately four percent per year through the year Tourism is usually good for the economy but is it is not always good for the environment. Mankind does have a way of messing up whatever we touch.
Whenever something is taken out of its natural environment and placed elsewhere, there is an effect on something. Hikers generally stay on paths. Every so often a hiker just must have a photograph of a flower in the middle of a field and trounces off to get it. In doing so, rare vegetation might be killed. Destroyed vegetation, air pollution, water pollution and refuge are just a few of the problems irritated by tourism.
Sprawl is - no pun intended - a growing problem. In Lancaster ounty, Pennsylvania, sprawl and relative…… [Read More]. Leadership design at Lands' end Integrity How deep are your convictions on things you count on?
Exactly what do you count on A Lot about your work that you will withstand anybody about it? Just how much are you about to jeopardize your crucial beliefs? To exactly what degree do your habits and tne options you make align with your leading worths and concepts? Integrity suggests sincerity and even more. It describes having sturdy internal leading concepts that one does not jeopardize.
It indicates dealing with others as you would want to be dealt with. Numerous professionals known that a strong sense of right and wrong and sturdy leading concepts are the most vital and standard of all leadership abilities or attributes. Integrity advertises depend on, and very little is achieved without depend on. Integrity is an ability to the degree that we see it in activity.
However it goes…… [Read More]. Evaluation of Military Integrity. Lying to Ourselves Military integrity has been a major issue in the recent past because of the increase in moral and ethical problems that are evident across the whole United States military and not just the Army alone. Wong and Gerras' article focuses on highlighting these moral and ethical problems that are increasingly affecting integrity in the U.
As evident in the article, leaders in the American military lie when performing their duties and constantly use rationalizations and justifications to deal with any emerging ethical or moral doubt. This tendency has in turn contributed to the unspoken embrace of dishonesty by these leaders, which is a clear reflection of hypocrisy. Therefore, one the major conclusions from this article include the fact that lying is has become increasingly acceptable in the U.
Dishonesty and hypocrisy in the military is widely accepted by its leaders…… [Read More]. When distilling the core concept his theory about design, Brooks states that it is better to omit unnecessary although interesting design elements, than it is to cram a design full of the best ideas that comes to the developers' collective heads. Brooks' cautions may seem obvious -- until one finds one's self at a table, brainstorming with a group of intelligent people.
Then, one may falls prey to the temptation to include all of these ideas, as they all seem strong. It also may be the best way to ensure no egos are bruised. Thus, in collaborative work especially, and disciplines such as design often necessitate working with a diverse group of people, the excitement and collective generosity created when generating ideas can subsume the need to complete a focused task and to achieve…… [Read More].
Every leader uses his or her own approach to leading, and while there are similar aspects to the behaviors of most leaders, how leaders approach their strengths is played out differently.
In literature like the blind man in Cathedral and in real life like the way Abraham Lincoln conducted himself in a political situation leaders provide robust examples of how to get things done and how to influence the actions of others.
This paper uses the leadership styles and behaviors of several individuals to demonstrate their qualities or, in the case of Jimmy Cross, lack of leadership qualities as they lead -- and the paper points to the integrity the individuals showed in the process of their leadership.
Effective or Ineffective Trait Leadership. Published in , Northouse's book Leadership: Theory and Practice goes into great detail as to what constitutes trait leadership and what behaviors and values do not qualify vis-a-vis trait leadership.
Northouse isn't alone in providing narrative that defines and describes trait leadership. In the book The Anatomy of Leadership West, , the author asserts that trait leadership "makes the assumption" that there are "distinctive physical and psychological characteristics" -- above and beyond standard leadership -- that account for the effectiveness of a leader. Those traits include "height, attractiveness, intelligence,…… [Read More].
Building a Database for Use in Scheduling. Building a Database for Use in Scheduling Process The scheduling of various activities can at the moment be with the help of computer programs that implement the methodology of the critical-path method CPM Choo et al. The requirements for building a database for use in scheduling process are numerous. For instance, each scheduler must have a separate database for storing information persistently.
The server administrator and the application scheduler have the choice as well as location of database to be used. The performance of a scheduler is largely affected by the performance of the chosen database.
If more tasks per second are needed then the scheduler daemons can be run on larger and faster systems. According to Johnson , the requirements for building a database for use in scheduling process include ensuring the following; Availability The scheduler database and service must be configured have a high level of availability by…… [Read More].
Perception and Actuality Are Many. The world's largest economy has seen much since the financial crisis of began the role toward the precipice in terms of the all Street corruption. Transparency president Nancy Boswell maintains that it is an "integrity gap " Graham, However, this author will identify a different issue. Indeed, this author's view is very long and will take a historical approach in order to prevent another Great Depression, the Congress under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt separated all Street investment banks and regular depository banks.
This took away the potential to make incredible profits from trading mortgage-backed securities whose ratings were artificially high. These encouraged banks to take what otherwise would have been intolerable risks in the form of bad loans that were later termed "toxic debt.
Racism in the Criminal Justice. The cases only took approximately four to five minutes implying to an unseen assembly line of justice. The study also brought to light the fact that minority cases from outside New York were listened to by an all white jury Ingram, The other part of the criminal justice system that witnessed high levels of racial prejudice is the correctional departments.
Discrimination has been witnessed in the way prisoners of colour have been treated. Black inmates are less likely to get early release date compared to the white prisoners as they find it hard to find acceptable addresses that is crime and drug free.
Whites have several options of where to stay compared to blacks thus a black prisoner is forced to stay longer in prison waiting for final release date. Convicts from minority groups have stiffer penalties for having conflicts with white convicts than with fellow blacks.
This is…… [Read More]. Input Controls Help to Replace. They can be arranged like radio buttons vertically, horizontally or in a grid pattern. Their major advantage is that they allow the user to choose their choice when all others are visible. Many people are also familiar with them and can use them quite fast. They, however, use up a lot of space when there are many options Duckett, Data integrity errors that would occur Without these input controls, data integrity errors would be common. This means that the validity of the data would not be high.
Without the text input control, it would not be possible to anticipate all options that users may need to enter. Therefore, it would bring a data integrity error where users attempt to choose options close to what they would have entered or leaving that empty. For example, it is not possible to preempt all names that users may need to choose.
Corruption Many Things Are Different. To combat the corruption inherent in such a system, we need to protect and nurture whistle blowing. Certainly, the more eyes there are on a situation, the more transparent it is, both in government and in business. The corruption that the recent recession revealed in the U. Enforcement takes human observation to fulfill this priority.
There is not enough police to go around. However, the common citizen, armed with legal protections, will provide this. Retrieved 11 August from http: Dworkin on Legal Construction the. In principle, Dworkin argues that the truth is always knowable for any given factual circumstances; the difficulty is that the human intellect is imperfect. In the same way, there is a finite number of individual particles of sand on the earth at any moment in time.
Human intellect and capabilities are incapable of determining that precise number; it would require a hypothetically limitless intellectual capacity. Judge Hercules possesses that infinite intelligence and also has the luxury of infinite time for contemplation. Dworkin suggests that Judge Hercules would always make the right decision and that the role of human judges is simply to aspire to be as Hercules-like as possible.
Dworkin's Judge Hercules is very similar to John Rawls' allegory about the veil of ignorance that he uses to illustrate the meaning of objective justice. Policy To explain the importance of valuing principle over policy in the construct and…… [Read More]. Computerized Hospital Management Systems The paper is about the benefits and costs of a computerized hospital management system from a nurse's perspective.
The author is placed in the position of a nurse of a small bed-community hospital who is the only nurse in a team of doctors to participate in the hospital management's decision on whether to buy such management system. In answering six specific questions related to the benefits and economic costs of computerized hospital management systems, the paper shows -- among others - that improved health care and increase in personnel and work efficiency will well outweigh the financial burden imposed on the hospital when buying two specific managements systems: In addition, the paper outlines the security standards of data and patient confidentiality, including the need for data storage integrity and data backup and recovery and how the Health Insurance Portability and…… [Read More].
He is also known as Josquin Desprez. Widely considered to be one of the most famous composers of his time, ranking as genius between Guillaume Dufay and Palestrina, he is renowned for having mastered the high Renaissance style of polyphonic vocal music that was popular during his time. The following essay describes the 6 core values of Excellence, Community, Respect, Personal Development, Responsible tewardship, and Integrity, and using specific examples demonstrates how Josquin des Prez does or does not meet these categories.
Excellence As it sounds, excellence is the value of maintaining a high degree of perfection in one's contribution. The artist or individual uses his talent to the maximum, he sharpens it and works on it until it becomes…… [Read More].
Internet News Information Business Executive. Generally, Wikipedia pages also include references and many of them are legitimate sources of information. In that sense, Wikipedia can be helpful as a starting point for online research more than as an authoritative source of any information.
Website 3 -- the National Anti-Vivisection Society: On the other hand, it is more of an advocacy site than an information or news site. The main concept of the organization is based on subjective belief and opinions in connection with the relative rights of non-human animals. While that position actually seems appropriate and more justifiable than the opposite position i. Because the website is…… [Read More]. Honor Codes in Academic Institutions Throughout the.
Honor Codes In academic institutions throughout the world, there are systems of codes which dictate how administration expects the student bodies to behave. These codes can be different based upon the specific rules of the institution in question. Some have clothing rules, others alcohol or narcotic rules, but there are certain dictums which are more universal.
Many schools have rules which dictate that students must behave in ways which the institution considers to be honorable. These honor codes can include different components, but it is primarily a pledge against cheating in any sense of the word. Students in many institutions must sign honor pledges wherein they promise that they will not cheat on their assignments or their examinations.
Also, if they are witness to any dishonesty on the part of their classmates, then they are responsible for revealing that duplicity to members of the staff or administration. The students pledge…… [Read More]. Leadership Two of the Most Pressing Issues. Leadership Two of the most pressing issues in corporate leadership today include gender equality and labor rights. In "Women See Slow Progress in Leadership," Gay cites numerous empirical studies showing that the glass ceiling remains nearly impenetrable at the highest levels of management.
The report cites the work-life balance ideal as the most common reason offered for why many women are either opting out of the CEO lifestyle, or are not considered ready or willing to handle the challenges and pressures of senior leadership. The company has recently been named one of the best companies to work for in the United States because of their relatively high salaries, supportive work environment, opportunity for growth, and job security.
Its ethical labor rights practices are helping gain positive publicity for Costco, showing…… [Read More]. Organization Ethics Development System While seeking to succeed in their respective industries, firms have shifted focus towards implementing ethical practices related to their human resource management policies. The goal of ethical practices is to capture timeless ethical guidelines, principles, related information and examples containing fundamentals of the changing business environment.
In this study, I have reviewed my current workplace to determine the degree of implementation of OEDS components. I have also proposed a plan for the implementation and ways of anticipating and overcoming resistance to the implementation process. The initial step of strategy implementation in the institution includes intensive planning. The department should focus on success goals and meaning. The stakeholders in such forums are involved in deciding on the objectives and meaning of success of the ethics program.
Benefits of an ethics program result from the strategic application…… [Read More]. Business Ethics a Contradiction in. Ironically, the single most important thing a university could do might be to suspend all forms of grading by the traditional test methods. Even without cheating, the focus on grades only encourages studying to perform on test instead of learning for the sake of learning. It might not be practical for large classes, but one-on-one oral exams between students and professors or TAs might be more difficult to cheat on and provide more accurate indications of what students have actually learned than traditional testing methods.
If the university cannot suspend traditional grading and testing, the single most important thing might be to provide a mandatory ethics course to freshman in conjunction with employing a very strict one-strike policy for cheating. Do you agree or disagree with Professor Couser, author of the "Dear Plagiarist" article? What are two main points he is trying to communicate to students in this…… [Read More]. Leading People Protocol and Uop. If there is one thing that I feel I truly understand, it is the fact that leadership is a core qualification that entails having an ability to design and also implement viable strategies in the face of adversity that maximizes the potential of each and every individual within an organization.
A dictionary may term the definition of leadership simply as guidance or direction, but that takes away from a true capacity to lead. Leadership requires a plethora of skills and foundations of knowledge and a desire to utilize these…… [Read More]. Characteristics Fulfillment in Life the Aim of. Characteristics Fulfillment in Life The aim of this discussion to ascertain three of the qualities a person needs so that they can lead a life of fulfillment.
The three qualities discussed will be love, integrity and knowledge. These three traits are part of the essence of being human and, combined with other humanistic traits such as sympathy and passion, these traits separate humans from the other, soulless animals in the world. The first of these qualities to discuss is love. Love is a quality that no life can be without.
The ability to build nurturing and loving relationships with another person is integral to our emotional fulfillment. It brings us the greatest joy we can possibly experience. Love can do many things including alleviating loneliness, such as the kind of "terrible loneliness in which one's shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold, unfathomable abyss" ussell,…… [Read More].
The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for millions. There were nine sources used to complete this paper. Under his terrorist reign of terror millions of people died.
Those who did not die suffered from the loss of loved ones, loss of privacy and loss of financial stability. It was a time in which the world was introduced to the dangerous side of charismatic politics. While there were many who were fooled in the beginning by Hitler's manipulation tactics they soon learned his true motivations and spent the rest of their lives working to unseat the inhumane dictator. There is one person however, who admired him from the…… [Read More].
People have different views and values regarding what is right and wrong. This is all based on our personal values. A counselor might believe that it is okay to discuss about a client provided they do not disclose their name and any personal information.
Ethically speaking this is wrong since they are divulging information shared in confidence. If it were ethically correct, the counselor would have sought the client's approval for them to share the information.
Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counselling: A social constructivism model of ethical decision making in counseling. Managed care, ethics, and counseling. A practitioner's guide to ethical decision making: American Counseling…… [Read More]. Keeping Digital Data Secure. Future of Data Storage in Computer Networks There are a number of problems facing the future of information technology including the fact that networks are increasingly asked to expand in order to accommodate more and more data.
Many experts believe that such increases will mean two things; one that the networks will become increasingly secure, and two because of the security, the data contained on the network will become more difficult to access.
This study sought to determine the various processes that are currently being used to secure data on various networks, and to determine if that security will, or will not, ensure that data will become incrementally more difficult to obtain.
To this end, this study used the most current literature available to determine if there is a problem with the data being stored in the current manner, or if there is a perception that the data will be…… [Read More]. Values Revolve Strongly Around Friends. Similarly, I often spend time with friends, rather than time with my family.
My goals do not necessarily coincide with what matters to me. When I think of my goals, I generally think of owning things such as a car or house, going to school, and earning a specific amount of money. If my goals were perfectly in line with my stated values, they would likely focus more on building and maintaining important family relationships. However, I believe it is possible to achieve my goals and keep my values at the same time.
This can be easily achieved if I manage my time carefully in order to always allow time for my relationships with my family and friends. Security and Control of Health Data. A White Paper Protecting Health-Care Data The efficiency of the modern healthcare system is increasingly becoming reliant on a computerized infrastructure.
Open distributed information systems have been initiated to bring professionals together on a common platform throughout the world. It needs to be understood that easy and flexible methods of processing and communication of images; sound and texts will help in visualizing and thereby cure illnesses and diseases effectively. Another aspect is that the easy access and usage can risk patient privacy, accountability, and secrecy associated with the healthcare profession.
Therefore, Information Technology -- IT must be able to focus mainly on improving the health of the patient and should not put the patient's health in danger. IO Press This implies that right data has to be made available to the right person at the right time. IT strongly affects the confidentiality…… [Read More].
How to Get Things Done in College. When a source has provided data, theory, or authoritative opinion, a citation must be provided. In every case, when the concept or content is not original though, it is important to cite both the actual quotations used and the paraphrases. In addition, if conversations with authorities or professors, for instance, emails, or interviews or other similar forms of communication are a source of information, conceptualization, or thought, then citations are required.
When you refer to a particular source frequently, multiple citations must be used. Alternately, fewer citations may be applied if the reader can understand from a clarifying statement in the writing that a particular resource has been used to address a particular topic. Note that citations are not needed for facts that are commonly known by the audience for which the writing is intended. Transition Into Late Adulthood.
Transition Into Late Adulthood Late Adulthood Grade Course While at one hand an old man in his 60s would cherish the past years of his life sharing experiences about college sports, dating spots and holiday fun, an elderly woman would act grumpy showing discontent on every dish being served at a dinner.
Such scenarios are commonly noticed in day-to-day life which surrounds people in their late adulthood; a period in 60s where according to Erik Erikson , individuals aim at finding satisfaction in their lives instead of becoming disillusioned. Hence, the transition to late adulthood is a time marked with physical, social and emotional challenges which are usually faced by almost every person. Life is divided into different phases where a child eventually grows up and is faced by the reality of life.
With time, he has school, parties and fast food revolving around him when suddenly this is replaced…… [Read More]. Her failure to appropriately inform her clients of the potential risks associated with their newly proposed investments was dishonest and selfish.
This lack of full disclosure certainly undermines the trust that these clients have put in her hands. Even the formulation of a relationship with the securities salesman is highly unethical.
As an objective member of a financial planning firm, Julia must approach her job and her client recommendations with an opened and unbiased mind.
Having a business relationship that would potentially award her personal gains for professional consideration unquestionably coincides with Julia's equitable responsibility to her customers. Evaluate Alternative Actions Consequences In this case, the consequences of Julia's unethical behavior can have massive effects on the lives of her clients. Qualities of Leadership the Concept. So, in some case, leadership does not necessarily link with responsibility for the men, but rather with the relationship with the persons who are led.
Napoleon was able to concentrate the energies of his men in a way that served his best interests. This links with Raymond Carver's story, in the sense that good leadership is also about good communication, about the ability of passing the appropriate message. The main theme of his story is that of communication or lack of , namely of finding the right words to pass on to the others. The right words are fundamental, because they help connect individuals and fostering this relationship is perhaps the most important part of good leadership.
The most important point in "Cathedral," from a leadership perspective, is when the husband finds himself at a loss of words when trying to describe the cathedral to Robert. He is, throughout the story…… [Read More]. Legal Environment and Impact on. This could be something like another computer picking up someone's credit card number during what was supposed to be a secure transaction, or an employee of a company giving out a person's confidential information over the phone to someone who is not authorized to receive it.
However it happens, confidentiality breaches are serious, and must be addressed immediately so they do not happen again Allen Integrity of information assures that information can not be modified without such modification being detected. Most information management systems have some sort of protocol in place for protecting the integrity of information.
The greatest danger to the integrity of information occurs when it is in transit from one computer to another. This is the perfect time for hackers to access the information and modify it without being detected. A secure information management system ensures that this is unlikely to happen and that any modifications…… [Read More].
Lessons Learned - Plagiarism, Proper Citations, Paraphrasing A Masters Degree in Information Systems builds on the student's former education, gives the student new, specific tools for using, understanding and building hardware and software, and prepares the student for valuable work in perhaps the most important global system developed to date.
In obtaining this Degree, the student must learn to recognize and avoid plagiarism, use proper citations and properly paraphrase.
Plagiarism Plagiarism is using the thoughts and words of another as your own, without giving credit to the original author Bouville, Plagiarism is currently a major problem in education and in business. In fact, though plagiarism…… [Read More]. Leadership Coaching and Monitoring the Objective of.
Leadership Coaching and Monitoring The objective of this study is to conduct a degree feedback in the form of self-reflection about a time when the writer of this work has been at their absolute best and the perceptions of others of the writer of this work.
Dutton entitled "Composing the Reflected est-Self-Portrait: Family members, friends and acquaintances, and organizations provide us with feedback about who we are, and this information is integrated into our self-concept. The launch was approved and ordered by the management of the Morton Thiokol, Inc. All these passengers perished Jennings The launch was repeatedly postponed because the engineers of Thiokol notes the failure of an O. Power and Moral Leadership Corporate Governance.
Corporate governance failure is a serious threat to the future existence of any organization. The high corporate failure rates witnessed in the first decade of the century brought to the limelight the concept of effective corporate governance, and the core principles of trust and integrity.
This text examines Wal-Mart's corporate governance strategy to determine how the company restrains managerial power, and how it aligns the interests of managers and directors with those of the organization. We do not sell any duplicate essays. Our work is completely original. We use the essay format provided by clients itself. If you are not contented with your essay, we can revise them for you.
We provide the best quality essays at very reasonable rates. The word integrity is derived from a Latin work integer. Integrity means equality in principles, action and values. More the integrity, less are the chances of discontent. Writing integrity essay is surely not a simple task. Integrity is very important for all from a basic age.
Jan 02, · Kudler's system integrity validation The essay gives a detailed information on how computer assisted auditing technique can be used in the validation of data and system integrity within an accounting information system, the functions of audit productivity and an account of the audit productivity software used in the system designed.
Integrity essay. For children with special needs education extracts from the teacher establishes with the children the school vmgo to teachers can create barrier to education, as there are private integrity essay schools located in the hospitals can be evaluated after three years.
Integrity means being true to ourselves and being honest, upright, and decent in our dealings with others. When we are guided by integrity, our thoughts and words are in line with each other; our actions align with our principles. Our conduct speaks for us, more eloquently than words ever could. % FREE Papers on Integrity essays. Sample topics, paragraph introduction help, research & more. Class , high school & college.
Integrity is a concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes. Barbara Killinger offers a traditional definition: Integrity is a personal choice, an uncompromising and predictably consistent commitment to honour moral, ethical, spiritual and artistic values and principles. . Free integrity papers, essays, and research papers. The Importance of Integrity - I The state of being complete or undivided, purity.