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❶Processes such as descriptive, thematic and content analysis, and triangulation are significant in ensuring the quality of a study, therefore, methods of data collection and analysis need to be organized and systematized with a detailed chain of evidence MERRIAM,

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YIN suggests careful screening in the selection of cases to ensure specific relevance to the issues of interest and the use of replication logic: Precision, process, and practicality are core attributes of YIN's approach to case study. Design features are sequentially structured and motivated by empirical application.

This positioning reflects the axiology of postpositivism where maintaining intellectual honesty, managing bias, and acknowledging limitations, coupled with meticulous data collection and accurate reporting are critical elements in the conduct of research KILLAM, ; YIN, MERRIAM maintains a constructivist approach to case study research, whereby the researcher assumes that reality is constructed intersubjectively through meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially.

Like YIN , MERRIAM , asserts that when information is plentiful and concepts abstract, it is important to utilize processes that help interpret, sort, and manage information and that adapt findings to convey clarity and applicability to the results. MERRIAM acknowledges case study research can use both quantitative and qualitative methods; however, when working on qualitative case studies, methods aimed at generating inductive reasoning and interpretation rather than testing hypothesis take priority.

Cases are selected based on the research purpose and question, and for what they could reveal about the phenomenon or topic of interest. Interviews are the most common form of qualitative data collection, although MERRIAM does not stipulate prioritizing a particular method for data collection or analysis, she does emphasize the importance of rigorous procedures to frame the research process.

Advocating for careful planning, development, and execution of case study research, MERRIAM , discusses the pragmatic structures that ensure case study research is manageable, rigorous, credible, and applicable.

Processes such as descriptive, thematic and content analysis, and triangulation are significant in ensuring the quality of a study, therefore, methods of data collection and analysis need to be organized and systematized with a detailed chain of evidence MERRIAM, According to BROWN , Merriam's style brings forth a practical application of pluralistic strategies that guide pragmatic constructivist research to derive knowledge about an area of inquiry.

STAKE , has an approach to case study research that is qualitative and closely aligned with a constructivist and interpretivist orientation.

While having a disciplined approach to the process and acknowledging that case study can use quantitative methods, STAKE's approach is underpinned by a strong motivation for discovering meaning and understanding of experiences in context. The role of the researcher in producing this knowledge is critical, and STAKE emphasizes the researcher's interpretive role as essential in the process.

An interpretative position views reality as multiple and subjective, based on meanings and understanding. Knowledge generated from the research process is relative to the time and context of the study and the researcher is interactive and participates in the study. In terms of epistemology, STAKE argues that situation shapes activity, experience, and one's interpretation of the case. For STAKE , to understand the case "requires experiencing the activity of the case as it occurs in its context and in its particular situation" p.

The researcher attempts to capture her or his interpreted reality of the case, while studying the case situationally enables an examination of the integrated system in which the case unfolds. A case is selected because it is interesting in itself or can facilitate the understanding of something else; it is instrumental in providing insight on an issue STAKE, For STAKE, multiple sources and methods of data collection and analysis can be used, however, interviews and observations are the preferred and dominant data collection method.

In seeking understanding and meaning, the researcher is positioned with participants as a partner in the discovery and generation of knowledge, where both direct interpretations, and categorical or thematic grouping of findings are used.

STAKE recommends vignettes—episodes of storytelling—to illustrate aspects of the case and thick descriptions to convey findings, a further illustration of his constructivist and interpretivist approach to case study research. BROWN suggests the three approaches used by these seminal researchers rest along a quantitative-qualitative continuum where the postpositivist methodology of YIN sits at one end, STAKE's interpretivist design , sits at the other end and MERRIAM , who as a pragmatic constructivist draws on the elements of both, rests toward the center.

BROWN sums up the influences of each, saying that "case study research is supported by the pragmatic approach of Merriam, informed by the rigour of Yin and enriched by the creative interpretation described by Stake" p. While some may argue that mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could threaten the veracity of the research BOBLIN et al. Despite variation in the approaches of the different exponents of case study, there are characteristics common to all of them. Defining the case unit of analysis or object of the study and bounding the case can be difficult as many points of interest and variables intersect and overlap in case study research.

Bounding the case is essential to focusing, framing, and managing data collection and analysis. How the methods are used will vary and depend on the research purpose and design, which is often a variation of a single or multiple case study research design. Interviews and focus groups, observations, and exploring artifacts are most commonly employed to collect and generate data with triangulation of methods and data, however, this is not exclusive.

These elements delineate case study from other forms of research and inform the critical aspects of the research design and execution. Object of the case study identified as the entity of interest or unit of analysis. Program, individual, group, social situation, organization, event, phenomena, or process.

Subjectivity a consistent thread—varies in depth and engagement depending on the philosophical orientation of the research, purpose, and methods. Methods of data collection: Case study elements and descriptors [ 31 ]. As discussed earlier, ensuring the alignment of philosophy and methodology with the research purpose and methods employed underpins a rigorous research process STEWART, Clarity in this alignment is fundamental to ensuring the veracity of the research and depends on the design developed.

During this process, researchers are encouraged to "logically justify their philosophical position, research design and include a coherent argument for inclusion of varying research methods" LUCK et al. Collective alignment of these elements articulates a justifiable framework for the research study and cultivates trustworthiness and the validity, reliability and credibility of the research findings. The authors describe case study as "a methodology, a type of design in qualitative research, an object of study and a product of the inquiry" p.

They conclude with a definition that collates the hallmarks of key approaches and represents the core features of a case study:. Since the 's a broad scope of case study approaches have developed. This range accentuates the flexibility of case study research as a distinct form of inquiry that enables comprehensive and in-depth insight into a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. While differences exist in some areas, commonalities are evident that can guide the application of a case study research design.

Key contributors to the development of case study agree that the focus of a case study is the detailed inquiry of a unit of analysis as a bounded system the case , over time, within its context. The versatility of case study research to accommodate the researcher's philosophical position presents a unique platform for a range of studies that can generate greater insights into areas of inquiry.

With the capacity to tailor approaches, case study designs can address a wide range of questions that ask why, what, and how of an issue and assist researchers to explore, explain, describe, evaluate, and theorize about complex issues in context. Outcomes can lead to an in-depth understanding of behaviors, processes, practices, and relationships in context. Professions including the social sciences, education, health, law, management, business, and urban planning have embraced case study research, demonstrating these outcomes.

Ongoing application of and sound debate about the value, validity, and capability of case study research have strengthened the efficacy of case study approaches as powerful forms of qualitative research. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: Journal of advanced nursing , 65 6 , Case study methods in the international relations subfield. Comparative Political Studies , 40 2 , Using Stake's qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice.

Qualitative Health Research , 23 9 , A review of the literature on case study research. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education , 1 1 , Clarifying case study research: Nurse Researcher , 17 3 , Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches 4th ed.

The Counseling Psychologist , 35 2 , The discipline and practice of qualitative research. Analysis and representation across a continuum. What is case study research? The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Case studies and theory development in the social sciences 4th ed. What is a case study and what is it good for?. American Political Science Review , 98 2 , Key note speech at the international conference "Methodologies in Housing Research ," Royal Institute of Technology in cooperation with the International Association of People—Environment Studies, Stockholm, September , , http: Paradigms, ontology, epistemology and methodology.

Qualitative methods and cross-method dialogue in political science. Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences, revisited in qualitative research. A bridge across the paradigms. Nursing Inquiry , 13 2 , The family among the Australian Aborigines: University of London Press.

Qualitative research and case study applications in education 2nd ed. A guide to design and implementation 2nd ed. A practical guide pp. Schematic representation of case study research designs. Journal of Advanced Nursing , 60 4 , Casing the research case study. Case study research in practice. The art of case study research. Multiple case study analysis. The Polish peasant in Europe and America.

Her research interests include undergraduate and postgraduate nurse education with her current study focusing on the practice readiness of new graduate registered nurses in Australia. Her research interests are in the areas of accessibility, innovation, relevance and quality in nursing education. Where can I get updates about new researches on fibromyalgia? I have fibromyalgia and I would like to know all there is to know and see if they found new breakthroughs on the subject.

I use this site: I need to do an interview with someone with knowledge on lupus for a research paper any takers? Descriptive research definition of Descriptive research by Medical dictionary https: Related to Descriptive research: Experimental research , Exploratory research.

Research in health care takes place in a variety of areas and has many potential benefits; the areas include professional practice, environmental issues affecting health, vitality, treatments, theory development, health care economics, and many others.

Health care research can be conducted by one group of professionals for generation of knowledge specific to that group, or by a diverse group of researchers collaborating on a given health care problem.

These studies are a means of discovering new meaning, describing what exists, determining the frequency with which something occurs, and categorizing information. The organized quest for new knowledge and better understanding, for example, of the natural world, determinants of health and disease.

Several types of research are recognized: Fr, rechercher, to investigate. The organized quest for new knowledge and better understanding e. Five types of research are recognized: Generally a disciplined protocol is followed to ensure objectivity and reproducibility.

Most research employs the scientific method or a similar model. Participants are numbered as they enroll, then they are randomly assigned to either the control or experimental group.

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DEFINITION Like other words of the same ending, the term creation signifies both an action and the object or effect thereof. William D. Its value is based on the. descriptive research definition by creswell (Latin creatio.) I. An exploratory and descriptive study was .

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Running head: DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 1 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 2 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Descriptive and inferential statistics are incredibly similar forms of research testing within psychology. Each seeks to analyze, describe, and possibly predict a population’s behavior.

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Descriptive research design is a scientific method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way. RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches JOHN W. CRESWELL UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA-LlNCOLN Creswell,[ohn W. Research design: Qualítative, quantitative. and mixed methods approaches/john W. • Define mixed methods research by incorporating the definition in.

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Research design INTRODUCTION Descriptive research involves direct exploration, analysis and description of the While Creswell () states that purposive sampling refers to selection of sites or participants that will best help the researcher. Chapter 11 Descriptive and interpretive approaches to qualitative research Robert Elliott and Ladislav Timulak Qualitative research methods today are a diverse set, encompassing approaches such as.