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Journalism and publishing terms - jargon buster

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The copy editor makes sure that everything is right about the story. He scans it thoroughly and makes sure that it poses no issues such as libel and slander, contempt of court etc that can easily bring legal problems to the newspaper.

The copy-editor is also called the sub-editor. Copyreader — this is a person who proofreads every item that is going to be published in order to make sure that there are no spelling mistakes or punctuation errors. A copyreader is also called a proofreader. Copy taster — a copy taster is just like a professional wine taster. Cover story — this is the most important story of a magazine.

It is highlighted on the front cover of the magazine. Credit line — this is a small text that comes after a picture or story to acknowledge the source. Cross fade — this is the movement from one audio or video to another one. This is done by gradually fading the first video or audio while simultaneously fading up the other one.

Cue-light — this is the light on a camera that tells the anchor that they are live. This is a digital radio technology for the broadcasting of radio stations. Dead air — this is when there is a sudden silence during broadcasting mainly because there is a technical problem. Deadline — this is the time by which a reporter must submit his finished story.

Death-knock — it is when a reporter calls at the home of the family or friends of a dead person in order to gather information regarding the death. Many journalists find it one of the most difficult assignments to do. The death knock is also called door-stepping.

Delayed lead — it is also called drop intro. This is a style of intro writing when a writer keeps the most important information of the story until later in the story in order to arouse the interest of the reader and create some mystery. Defamation — this is the act of saying something bad about a person or group of people which causes them harm.

It is also called libel and slander. Editor — an editor is the most senior editorial executive who is in charge of a newspaper and decides what should be included in it. The editor is legally responsible for the content of the newspaper. Editorial — this is an article that gives the opinion of a newspaper. Editorials are only in print journalism. Editorial page — this is the page in the newspaper where the editorial is printed.

It is also called an opinion page. Editorial cartoon — is a cartoon on the editorial page that comments on an issue. Editorialize — this is when a journalist puts his opinion into a news story. Newspapers and broadcast stations are not supposed to editorialize in their news stories except analysis stories, columns and editorials. Embargo — it is the prohibition on publishing or broadcasting before a specified time. ENG — electronic news gathering done mostly with portable video cameras.

Establishing shot — this is a wide shot of a scene that is used to begin a news story on television. Exclusive — this can also be called a scoop. It is a major and important story that only a particular newspaper or news station has. Executive producer — this is the executive who is in total control of a radio or television program.

Feature — a feature is an article or radio story that informs and entertains readers or listeners. Features are different from hard news stories. Features are said to be the story behind the story. Features are longer and more complex than a simple news story.

Longer features can be sometimes referred to as documentaries. Feedback — this is an unwanted and irritating noise caused when sound from a speaker is fed back into the microphone. A feedback is also called a howl-round. File — this is the process of sending a report from a location to the newsroom or to the studio.

Filler — a filler is a very short news story or advertisement that is used to fill a small space in a newspaper. Flash — this is the headline used by news agencies to describe major breaking news.

A flash can also be a brief news story of a breaking event that interrupts a radio or television program or show. Float — it is a picture or video shown on television while a presenter is talking or having an interview with a guest. Freedom of Information — it is a law that forces governments to release information to the public when they are requested. The law states that the general public has every right to information.

The law also states that if government bodies cannot release information to the public upon request then they should state why the information cannot be released. Focus group — this is a research method that employs a small number of people who take part in a discussion on a particular issue.

This method of research is normally used in TV and Radio for audience research. It is quite effective. Follow-up — follow-up story is a story written to add more information or details about a story which has already been published. FX — it is the short form for sound effects. Grab — a grab is defined as a short piece of a recorded sound which is taken from a longer interview and inserted into a news item.

It is almost similar to a sound bite. Graphics — these are words, titles, diagrams or artworks that are used in programs or newscasts. Hard news — this is the daily factual reporting of important events. These events can be national, international or local. The opposite of the hard news is soft news. Headline — this is a word or phrase in large and bold font at the top of a news story or an article.

If a headline is not capable of doing this then it is not a good headline. A headline can also be called a head. Insert — an insert is an additional text that is included into a story that is already written. Interview — an interview can be defined as a formal and recorded conversation between a reporter and a source for the main purpose of getting information that will be used in a story. Intro — this is the first paragraph of a news story or a feature.

It is also known as the lead. It contains the most newsworthy aspects of a story. Inverted pyramid — this is the most common way or form of writing news story. This structure is used by journalists all over the world in writing news stories. The inverted pyramid structure involves the arranging or organization of information in a news story in descending order of importance. This literally means that the most important or newsworthy aspects of the story come first.

Investigative journalism or reporting — this is a type of journalism where reporters investigate and find out information that is concealed. This type of journalism requires more research and caution. Layout — it is the design of a newspaper or magazine. Lead — it is the first sentence or paragraph of a news story. It is also sometimes spelled lede. Leading question — this is a question asked by a reporter during an interview that tries to get information from the interviewee that the reporter wants to hear.

Lead story — this is the most important news story in a bulletin. In a newspaper it is also the most important news story and it is always displayed prominently on front page of a newspaper. Letters to the editor — these are letter that come from readers of a paper to the editor expressing their views and opinions on issues. Leak — this has to do with important information that was meant to be secret but ends up being exposed by an anonymous source.

Libel — this is the process of writing an untrue statement about someone or a group of people that causes harm to them. Minidoc — this is a word that refers to a short news feature or documentary. Medium close-up — it is popularly called MCU.

It is the framing of a shot from the waist up. Medium shot — this is wider than the MCU. It is framed from a person head to toe. Mobile unit — is a small van or truck that is equipped with materials for production.

Montage — this is the combination of sounds. More — a word that is typed at the end of a copy which indicates that there is more story to come. This is the sound of the location that is recorded as the footage is also recorded. It can also be called wild sound.

Journalists are advised not to use negative leads in their stories. News agency — this is a company that is in the business of gathering news and selling them to media organizations. An example of a news agency is Associated Press.

Nib — News in Brief. These are a collection of short stories in one or two paragraphs. Noddies — these are shots of the reporter listening attentively or nodding the head while the interviewee speaks. A network of machines, devices and appliances that have some level of computerisation inside them that enables them to interact through the Internet to perform some functions. A popular household example is a fridge that can re-order food and drink without being told by a human.

A method by which radio or television presenters - and sometimes guests - can hear the program output as well as messages from colleagues through an ear piece or headphones. A formal, usually structured conversation between a journalist and a source to get information for a story. A private computer network within a company or organisation for internal users only. The first paragraph of a news story, usually containing the most newsworthy part of it. In features and documentaries the intro may just lead the reader or listener into the story.

Known as a lead in the US. In broadcasting, a few words or sentences read by the presenter, telling listeners or viewers about the report which immediately follows. The most common structure for writing a news story, with the main news at the start and the rest of the detail following in decreasing order of importance. Finding, reporting and presenting news which other people try to hide. It usually takes longer and requires more research that ordinary news reporting.

Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over the Internet. Specialised language concerned with a particular subject, culture or profession. It is not usually found in the everyday speech of ordinary readers or listeners and so should be avoided in the general media if possible.

A computer language that adds extra functions to HTML web sites. Short piece of music played on radio to identify a regular feature, program or product being advertised. The communication of current issues and events to an audience in a structured way, usually in relation to a set of generally agreed social principles such as accuracy.

Someone who finds and presents information as news to the audiences of newspapers, magazines, radio or television stations or the Internet. Journalists traditionally work within a set of generally agreed societal principles or within professional codes. Professional journalists are usually trained and receive payment for their work. Also JPG One of several file formats for making and sharing digital images by compressing them into smaller files.

A line of type at the bottom of an incomplete newspaper or magazine article which directs the reader to another page where the story is continued. Electronic versions sent via the Internet are usually called spam. Where each line in a column of text aligns to the same left and right margins. This is achieved by stretching or shrinking the width of letters or spaces between words. Sometimes called fully justified or set full.

A way of setting printed type so that adjacent characters appear to overlap, reducing the amount of horizontal space they require.

Important facts or pieces of information which must be included in a news story. Some will go in the intro , others into the body of the story. A word that can be used by a search engine to find all references containing it. Keywords can be used to find words within digital documents, on web pages or on the Internet. To cancel or delete all or part of a story. See also to spike. A reduced fee paid to a freelance journalist for a story that is not used. Sometimes called a dummy. A sub-editor who specialises in planning the layout of pages.

Also called a 'splash'. An article written by the editor or a specialist giving the opinion of the newspaper on an issue. See also definition 1 of editorial above. A question phrased in such a way as to draw out a specific answer wanted by the questioner.

Letters from readers published by a newspaper or magazine, expressing their views on previous content or current issues. Letters to the editor are read out on radio or shown on screen while being read out on television. An older term for defamation. Traditionally, libel was the written form of defamation. To take a news story, feature or quote from another newspaper or broadcaster and use it in your own report.

A special supplement - often attached to advertising or a promotion - which is inserted into a newspaper or magazine and can be lifted out by a reader. Copying a quote or partial quote from within an article and highlighting it next to the body of the text using special type or formatting. See also pull-out quote. A list of reports, interviews or other material compiled for an upcoming news bulletin or newscast, usually placed in the order in which they will be presented.

The process by which hyperlinks on individual websites or the Internet in general point to web pages, servers or other resources that have become unavailable.

See also broken links. A machine used to make type for printing before computer typesetting. See hot metal type. Adjective 1 Being broadcast as it happens. See also on air. Used by a journalist, they often prompt strong reactions from interviewees but this can obscure useful discussions and prompt accusations of bias. An agreed process by which journalists are taken to a room to see advance copies of a major announcement, such as a government budget, and in which they stay to prepare stories for release as soon as the budget is delivered in parliament or congress.

A record of events. Similar to a shotlist. The small letters of the alphabet, i. Compare with upper case. Also called a periodical. The senior editor involved in the day-to-day production of a newspaper or magazine, usually with overall responsibility for the gathering, writing and sub-editing of news.

A web page or web application that automatically brings together content from more than one source to create a single new service, such as names of local businesses shown in locations on a map.

Media technologies such as radio, television, newspapers and magazines that reach large audiences via widespread or mass communication, usually by broadcasting, physical distribution or on the Internet. Compare with social media. The name of a newspaper in a banner in special, distinctive type at the top of the front page. Also called press conference or news conference. When reporters are gathered together to question someone in the news, usually taking it in turns to ask questions.

Such gatherings are usually organised by an individual or company to deal with all the media in one session or to promote a new product or service. It may contain written documents, photographs, charts, schedules and other information the organisation wants journalists to focus on. Also called press officer , a person employed by a company or other organisation to get positive publicity in the media and deal with enquiries from journalists. A million pixels , a measure of the number of pixels in a digital image, the higher the number the clearer and sharper the image.

A small or short Internet blog that allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences, individual images, or video links. Examples include Twitter and Facebook. Small, focused audio and video programs delivered directly to a specialised audience on a program-by-program basis, often by subscription. Contrast with broadcasting to mass audiences. Mobile journalists who use light and portable reporting and communications tools such as mobile camera phones, PDAs and notebook wireless computers to record, edit and transmit their work in text, audio, pictures and video while in the field, without using an office.

Typed at the end of copy to signify that there is more of the story to come, either on another page or later in the process. Often shortened to "mf" for "more follows immediately" or "mtc" for "more to come later". A suite of internationally agreed standard data formats that allow the recording and transmission of video and audio compressed to use less data. It uses far less data than the other principal digital audio format WAV. A head-and-shoulders photograph of a person facing the camera.

The way of presenting a subject using different types of media, such as video, audio, text and images in combination. In journalism, stories that are told using more than one technology platform, each platform chosen to best tell that part of the story.

For example, a radio documentary may put additional information, transcripts etc on a website for listeners to visit and learn more. A television report may use a social media platform to interact with viewers to enhance the story or gather and share more information. A single digital television or digital radio signal comprising several distinct channels of programming.

A type of caption on screen, typically the name and title of the person speaking. Also called supers because they are superimposed over the image of the person who is speaking or cap gens cg from creation by a caption generator. They can also be called captions. Also known as wild sound. Transmission of information, entertainment etc to a limited audience often sharing a specific interest or locality. The National Council for Training of Journalists is the official UK industry accreditation board for journalism courses.

Rules of polite behaviour etiquette when using the Internet. A form of citizen journalism which relies heavily on information shared through the Internet to create stories, often without original research by the writer or producer.

A question asked in such a way that it does not imply personal opinion or bias. Compare with loaded questions above. Usually defined as media of mass communication that came into being because of computers. Websites are new media, newspapers and even television are said to be old media. See also digital media. Information which is new, unusually and interesting or significant to the recipient. It is usually about people or related in some way to their lives.

News is produced in a structured way by journalists. A company that sells stories to media organisations. News agencies may produce news stories or features themselves or collect and redistribute them to media outlets. A web application which gathers syndicated web content - such as online newspapers, blogs, podcasts, and video blogs vlogs - in one location for easy viewing. In broadcasting, a scheduled or unplanned interruption in programming to present a short news bulletin, either previewing an upcoming news program or to give breaking news of an important event.

The person in charge of which news events are covered and how news stories are gathered and written by reporters in a newsroom. In smaller newsrooms, this is often done by a chief reporter.

See also chief or staff. Also punctuated as news-in-brief , a collection of short stories or a single story presented in one or two short paragraphs. In print or on a web page, NIBs may appear in a small box or a specific column at the side or bottom of a page. In broadcasting, they may either be a brief insert into other programming or be presented as a block of short stories within a bulletin.

Collectively they may also be known as wraps , round-ups or news belts. A list of stories for coverage in the current edition of a newspaper or forthcoming news bulletin. It is usually prepared by the news editor. The qualities or criteria that journalists use to assess whether an event, development or opinion is worthy of preparing and presenting as news.

Criteria include whether it is new, unusual, interesting or significant and about people. See What is News. British industry body representing regional and local newspaper owners. A cheap, low grade of paper made from recycled paper and wood pulp, used for printing newspapers. Also called an anchor. A specially equipped office where journalists work producing news. Aspects of an event or development that make it worth communicating in a news story or feature.

See also news value above. In a morning newspaper, the most senior journalist left in charge of a newsroom overnight when the editor has left. Where there is only a single camera, noddies are usually shot after the interview ends and then edited into the finished piece to break up long slabs of the interviewee. Information for publication or broadcast given on agreement that you do not identify the source.

Tape editing used to be a linear process of dubbing individual shots from a source tape onto an edit master in sequence. A paragraph telling the essential elements of a story briefly, i. The National Union of Journalists is a British trade union and professional organisation for journalists. Short for outside broadcast. Radio or television programs broadcast from a location outside the studios, usually live, using an OB van or OB truck. An article summarising the life and achievements of a person recently dead.

A basic type of journalism practiced in democracies in which the journalists do not allow their personal biases to affect their work, they take a neutral stance even on difficult matters and give a fair representation of events and issues.

Compare with advocacy journalism. British Broadcasting industry regulator. A news story which was not expected or scheduled in the diary. See also off the record.

Short for off microphone. Type 2 is also called non-attributable information. Journalists should check exactly which of these conditions the source expects. See also background above. A microphone which picks up sound from all directions. Compare with unidirectional and bidirectional microphones. A program being currently broadcast to viewers or listeners. A studio which is 'on air' is said to be 'live'.

A news story scheduled in the newsroom diary for coverage. Reporting and writing news specifically for use on the Internet. Article that is written in case it is needed i. Information given by a source who has agreed to be identified in the story. Compare with off the record and non-attributable above.

Chiefly US, an opinionated story written by a prominent journalist. The page in a newspaper opposite the editorial page , containing opinion columns, sometimes readers letters and other items expressing opinions. Compare with closed question above. A system of innovators working together — often remotely over the Internet - to create digital products or services.

The open source material they produce is also usually free for people to use, though it is not necessarily copyright -free. Compare with fact above. A single first line of a paragraph left incomplete at the bottom of a column of text, the rest of the paragraph appearing at the top of the next column of text.

Normally avoided in typesetting. See also widow below. Also called an outcue. When actual reports are produced or live interviews are arranged, they are added to the line-up for the upcoming bulletin or newscast. In broadcasting, recorded material left out of the program that is finally broadcast.

Humorous out-takes are often called flubs or bloopers. To dub sound on top of another sound, so the original sound can still be heard in the background. Usually used to put voice over background or wild sound or to put a translation in one language over the original words spoken in another language. A program or report which is too long for its allotted time slot. See also run to time. When individual journalists competing for coverage of an event or issue act together, like a pack of dogs chasing the same quarry.

A completed television news story pre-prepared for a news bulletin and ready for transmission. A way of measuring Internet traffic on a site by the number of individual web pages visited. Clicking on three separate pages on a web site counts as three page views. Compare with hits , which counts the number of individual elements e.

Slowly moving a television camera left or right in an arc parallel to the ground. See also reported speech. A quote of which only part of the sentence is used. If words are omitted from within the quote used, their absence is signified by ellipsis three dots , e.

He said there was 'every chance An older method of printing stories and pasting them onto a page ready to be printed, before computerised desktop design. A service in which a person pays only for the individual program or movie they wish to watch.

It is usually delivered to the home by cable television or Internet download. A television service which viewers pay to receive, usually by subscription or pay-per-view. Restricting access to content on a website to people who have paid a subscription. Paywalls are used by online newspapers, magazines and some TV and radio networks to replace the cover price lost from hard copy editions and to meet a decline in advertising.

A small hand-held computer combining a mobile phone, organiser and software to connect to the Internet. A common standardised file format for documents to be reproduced exactly as they appeared when created. A network where two or more computers are connected to share resources without going through a separate server computer.

Permalinks are often rendered simply, to be easy for people to type and remember. A type of radio program which invites listeners to telephone with information or comments for broadcast. A popular computer program used to edit and organise photographs. A unit of measurement for type, approximately 4. It is divided into 12 points. Video provided by news agencies that media organisations, pay to use. A trial episode of a proposed television series, to see whether there is audience demand for a full series.

A system of shorthand mainly used in Britain and associated countries. It is regarded as able to achieve faster speeds than systems such as Teeline but is more complex to learn. A pixel is the smallest individual element that can be programmed when creating a digital image. The resolution or quality of a digital screen image is determined by how many pixels there are in a specified area, often expressed as horizontal and vertical dimensions.

Originally used to distinguish between different computer systems, platforms generally include audio radio, podcasts etc , video television, film, videostreaming , text usually on websites, electronic billboards or public display screens , mobile devices such as smart phones, GPS navigators etc.

A graphics file format designed for transferring images via the Internet with minimal loss of quality through compression. The smallest unit of measuring type fonts and other items on a printed page. There are 12 points in a pica. See also desktop publishing point DTP. Unwanted small explosive sounds caused by a speaker being too close to a microphone when saying words with strong 'p', 't', 'd' or 'b' sounds.

Mainly US, material gathered by a journalist but held for later use if required. An organisation representing British magazine publishers. Audio or video files that can be regularly or automatically downloaded from the website of their producer onto the computers of people who subscribe to receive them. Podcasting is an especially popular method of making radio and television programs available online after they have been broadcast, though some programs are now only produced for download.

Once downloaded onto a computer, podcasts can be transferred to portable devices such as the Apple iPod or similar MP3 players. Video podcasts are often called vodcasts. Text at the end of an article indicating where in the newspaper or magazine the reader can find related articles. An Internet advert that pops up on screen. A web page through which visitors are encouraged to enter the main website for more pages and services. A single item added to a website, blog, forum or social media page, such as a Facebook status update.

A unit of measuring fonts. See desktop publishing point. In broadcasting, to start recorded material such as a tape or piece of music before the sound or vision is turned on, to assist with timing. A person who presents a radio or television program on air.

Called an anchor in US. The large room or building housing the printing machines presses for a newspaper or magazine. Also called a 'print room'. The printing of an edition of a newspaper or magazine. Also the number of copies printed. Also called a print run.

The largest news agency in India, run as a not-for-profit cooperative providing and exchanging news in English and Hindi among more than newspapers. It also provides a satellite news service. In broadcast journalism, the person responsible for a particular episode of a news program, a specific documentary or a single segment of a multi-report current affairs program.

They usually report upwards to an executive producer. A senior journalist responsible for making sure content in a newspaper or magazine is printed properly.

Usually works in a press room or print room during the press run where he or she is able to make last-minute changes. A copy of a page which has been typeset ready for printing, provided to editors , sub-editors or proof readers to correct errors or make final changes before the printing presses start production.

Also called a copy reader. Information presented intentionally to influence a mass audience to support or oppose something. Propaganda is usually motivated by self interest and can range from being selective in what it chooses to highlight or ignore to actively lying about events and issues.

Not to be confused with advocacy journalism. Part of an organisation dedicated to improving relationships with its public, often through the media. Some public affairs departments also monitor public opinion of it. See also media officer. Radio or television services funded through government by taxpayers or a user licence fee. Compare with commercial broadcasting. Radio, television and other media whose primary mission is public service.

Sometimes called public-sector media. Many are established to be editorially independent of government, though some — usually called state media - are government controlled. To make something available to an audience, usually in a printed or pictorial form, although material on the Internet is said to be published.

A newspaper's own advertisements at the top of the front page promoting articles inside or in future issues. A news story or feature written to make the subject seem good. Web content that is activated by clicking a down arrow on a web page menu.

A specially powerful or significant quote or excerpt from a story, highlighted in a different typeface next to the main text or in gaps within a column. Also called a sell , lift-out quote or call-out. When journalists have finished their work on preparing a newspaper and it is sent to the presses for printing. Marks in a text to show the start and the end of a quote. Usually either single ' or double " inverted commas, depending on house style.

Sometimes called speech marks. Compare with reported speech. A microphone which uses radio waves instead of cables to transmit signals to a receiver. That part of the electromagnetic spectrum used for carrying radio and television signals, ranging from 3 kHz to GHz.

Typically, whole programs are dedicated to this single function and the names of people who pledge money are read out on air. On television, these are called telethons. In broadcast journalism, material before it has been processed, especially edited. In advertising and audience research, reach is a measure of the potential size of an audience.

It is not a measure of the actual number of people watching, listening or reading a program, publication or website. See also audience ratings. This can apply to both print and online versions, although online they are often also called visitors or viewers.

Also called proof readers or copy readers. The right-hand page of a newspaper or magazine. An important breaking news story. From the newspaper practice of highlighting an exclusive, breaking news story in red type. To rewrite a story or reorganise a page, usually by moving elements around. A way of reporting what someone has said without using their exact words in a quote.

In grammar, sometimes called indirect speech. A journalist who gathers information - including researching and interviewing people - and writes news stories. An international, not-for-profit organisation founded in that fights for press freedom around the world. To revise existing content for a different delivery format or platform. For example, video footage shot for broadcast may be repurposed for a website. Withdrawal of story or part of a story after publication, often because a mistake has been made or a legal problem has arisen.

One of the world's oldest international news agencies started in London in Now part of the Thomson Reuters company. A description of an event with a critical assessment of how well it was done. Reviews are typically written of plays and other theatre performances, concerts and recitals, new recordings, movies, radio and television programs, books, restaurants, exhibitions and other forms of entertainment.

To improve a story by rewriting, updating or correcting information. A reporter's specialist area of coverage, such as 'a police round'. Reporters develop personal contacts in these areas who can give them information. Often called a 'beat' in the US or a 'patch' in the UK. A collection of short stories or summary of information about an event or a day. See also news in brief NIB. Rich Site Summary also called Really Simple Syndication are formats for delivering regularly updated web content provided by news sites, blogs , audio, video and other online publishers.

Users subscribe to feeds which the RSS reader on their computer or mobile device checks regularly for new material to download.

In print, lines used to separate one element from another on a newspaper or magazine page. To publish or broadcast a story. See also press run above. A list of stories for a news bulletin. The order in which stories appear in a bulletin or current affairs program, giving titles, times and other information.. News which is reported as it happens while events unfold. See also breaking news. A program or segment which is the correct length to fit into its time slot.

A program or report which is too long is said to overrun , while one that is too short underruns. Early edited version of video or film that needs further editing. A design of print type such as Ariel without small extensions at the ends or corners of letters. Television services delivered through satellites, received on the ground by satellite dishes and decoders.

Compare with terrestrial television and cable TV. In some countries, limited radio services are also delivered via satellite. A word or short phrase put between quotation marks when they are not necessary, usually just for emphasis or to suggest disbelief, e.

An important or significant news story published or broadcast before other competing media know of it. A media agency created to help members of the public sell photographs and videos of newsworthy events to the media. A digital image of what is visible at that moment on a monitor, television or other device screen.

A gathering of reporters around a person, all competing to ask questions or take photographs. Compare with a media conference. Popular search engines include Google, Bing, Baidu and Yahoo!

Techniques and software for improving how a website ranks on search engines. Pronounced SEG-way In broadcasting, a transition from one topic to another using a word, idea or theme common to both. A self-portrait photograph, usually taken with a smartphone or similar portable device and then shared on social media.

A design of print type such as Times Roman with small extensions serifs at the ends or corners of letters. A central computer or program providing services such as website hosting to other computers or devices called clients. A writing system which uses short strokes or special symbols to represent letters or words to make note-taking much faster. The most common systems in English are Pitman , Gregg and Teeline. Distortion of sounds caused by a person being too close to a microphone when saying words with strong 's', 'z', 'sh', 'ch' or 'zh' sounds.

Latin for 'thus' or 'so', is usually written in square brackets as [sic] after an misused or misspelled word or phrase to show they have been reproduced exactly as spoken or written in the original, e.

A column beside a main story which has more information about - or another angle to - the main story to which it is attached. To broadcast the same program at the same time simultaneously on different channels or platforms.

A popular free Internet telephone and videoconferencing program. An older term for the spoken form of defamation. Outdated US term for a senior or chief copy editor who sat in the "slot" at the centre of the copy editors' table. A key word or phrase that identifies a news story while it is being prepared. A short message from a news agency alerting subscribers to an event about which they will shortly provide more detailed coverage.

Originally used by people to keep in touch with family and friends, social media are now also used by print, broadcast and online media and journalists as quick, unstructured tools for communicating. The use of online platforms to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. Words or pictures which exist in computerised form as data. Compare with hard copy , where they are printed on paper.

Soft news focuses on interesting individuals rather than on major events or developments which impact on lots of people. Compare with hard news. A short segment of someone speaking, usually the most significant or interesting part of what they said.

Sound on a recorded television report, identified as such so a presenter knows when it will start so they do not talk over it. A half sheet of advertising folded round a newspaper or magazine so the outer halves of the front and back pages are still visible. Unwanted and unasked for email or social media messages promoting a product or service. See also junk mail. To not publish a submitted article. Derived from a metal spike on which such rejected stories were impaled. See also to kill.

The continuation of a story from one page to another. Called a jump in US. Text at the bottom of an incomplete article on one page stating where the story is continued 'spilled' later in the newspaper or magazine, e. Putting a positive slant on something bad or emphasising only the positive aspects while ignoring the negatives. An exciting front page story given prominence so people will take notice of it. See also lead 1. Also called 'box brackets'. Used in quotes to denote the words between them have been modified from or added to the original, usually for greater clarity, e.

The Prime Minister said: A short pre-recorded sound inserted into a program or bulletin to create a pause or provide a break between different segments. See also sting below. A short section of text between a headline and the text that follows. Often in a different type size to the body type, it gives a brief summary of the article that follows. Called a kicker 2 in the US. Usually a head and shoulders shot which features the reporter talking into the camera at the scene of the news event, often used as a transition, or at the beginning or ending.

Media for mass communication that are wholly controlled by the state. Compare with public service media. Usually applies to the mix of talk and music presented by a radio station. It can also describe other factors such as local content, sports coverage, talkback etc. IDs are usually composed around specific melodies, themes or slogans and made available to presenters in a variety of styles and lengths to suit different purposes in programming. A station ident may contain the station's name and frequency, often accompanied by a musical jingle.

The relevant words are identified by underlining them with a dotted line. A photograph or graphic used in television, not a moving picture. A short piece of music from 5 to 30 seconds played in program breaks or to add drama.

Stings are either dramatic music or based on station identification melodies. A musical form of a stab. Also called file footage. In newspapers, the latest available news just in. From a time when printing presses were stopped to put in urgent breaking news before continuing the print run. Papers often had Stop Press boxes in a corner of the front or back page where brief urgent stories could be inserted.

A sequence of drawings or diagrams used in planning movies or longer television reports, showing approximately how the shots will appear. A straightforward account of factual news with little or no comment or analysis. In US called a tagline. Watching or listening to a video or audio file as it is being played from the source site, rather than waiting until it is downloaded and then opened.

A regular contributor to a newspaper or broadcaster who is not a member of staff. Stringers are often paid by the length of stories they provide.

A consistent way of presenting information. A document or online set of rules on how language is used in a particular organisation. See also house style. See also copy editor. In many countries there are restrictions on what the media can report during sub judice periods.

A radio service only available by paying a fee and usually transmitted by cable or wirelessly in a code which can only be decoded by special paid-for radio receivers. A text version of the words spoken in a television program or movie, displayed at the bottom of the screen as the relevant words are spoken.

Mainly used as a way of presenting dialogue from a foreign language as text in the language of broadcast. Subtitles for the deaf and hard-of-hearing are called closed captions. Verb To simultaneously sell or otherwise provide a journalist or photographer's work to other newspapers, magazines or broadcasters who subscribe to that service. The rules by which words in a language are put together in relation to each other to make sentences.

A small, compact format newspaper, usually less than 43 cm 17 inches long. Also used to describe a newspaper style that uses short, simply-written stories and headlines with lots of pictures to illustrate more sensational content. A surprising or humorous observation at the end of a story or bulletin, associated with the story or bulletin but standing apart from it because of its subject matter or tone. Also called a kicker see definition 4. In printing, an illustration at the end of a chapter.

A radio station whose main format is speech-based programming, not music-based. Talk radio is usually more information oriented, often with news and current affairs services and talkback programs.

Once holding mainly magnetic tape, increasingly newsroom archives are hold sound recordings and television footage within computer systems.

A page cut or torn from a newspaper to show someone - such as an advertiser - that a story of picture was used. We find out why later in the program. A short audio or video segment produced to advertise an upcoming news bulletin or news items.

A simplified system of shorthand used by journalists in Britain and associated countries. It is regarded as easier to learn than Pitman or Gregg, but harder to achieve high note-making speeds with. A news and information text service offered through television sets, accessed through interactive menus on screen. Television transmitted from local towers to the home over radio waves. Compare with satellite television and cable TV. A statement saying positive things about a product, often by a celebrity or respected client.

The number "30" was once typed at the end of copy in the United States to signify the end of the article. It is seldom used today, the word "end" or " " now being preferred. A half-column picture in newspapers or a reduced size picture on a web page which, when clicked on, brings up the full sized picture or illustration. Also known as a tie back. Text which appears on screen at the beginning - and sometimes the end - of a television program or movie, usually with music in the background. Credits are titles which list the names and jobs of the people involved in the production.

A method of linking two websites, usually to tell one website or blog when another website or blog links to it. Pingbacks are automatic trackbacks.

In broadcasting, a short segment promoting an item coming later in the program. Also called a promo. A word-for-word written version of an interview or other spoken segment. Increasingly transcripts are posted online. In news reporting, a way of moving smoothly from one story or section of a story to another. An indicator that a topic is popular on social media at a given moment.

A social media user who writes deliberately offensive or annoying posts with the aim of provoking another user or group of users. A Twitter message that can contain up to characters of text, as well as photos, videos and other forms of media. Tweets are usually public.

A social network and media platform that provides a forum for real-time discussions on events or breaking news through users posting tweets.

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crony journalism Reporting that ignores or treats lightly negative news about friends of a reporter. crop To cut or mask the unwanted portions, usually of a Broadcasting Terms close-up Shot of the face of the subject that dominated .

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Journalism, like any profession, has its own language and specialist words which practitioners need to know. The following glossary contains more than definitions of terms about journalism and the media - including new media - making it probably the biggest, most extensive journalism and media glossary available free online. ‘A book so good every journalist will ask: “Why didn't I think of that?”’ –Roy GreensladeOver 1, entriesThis accessible and authoritative A–Z covers the wide range of terms likely to be encountered by students of journalism.

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